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 INDONESIA
Historical Events Shaping the Country
Current Affairs in a Global context
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PRESIDENT SUKARNO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Presidency
1945-1967

Revolution 
1945-1949

Permesta 
1958

 Gestapu
1965

Supersemar
1966-1967

 

 

 

 

 

US Relations 

CIA in Indonesia

1960s

NSA documents

UK Relations

 

  

 

 

 


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Overview

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Economy

1965 Gestapu

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 US Relations 60s-98

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East Timor

 

 

 

SUPERSEMAR

Historical Supersemar document dated 11 March 1966 .
A mandate to Suharto in which Sukarno instructs Lt General Suharto to,
on his behalf, take any action considered necessary to restore security,
order and stability to the country.

This mandate has been used for the transfer of power from Sukarno to Suharto.

 

Supersemar Decree Vanishes!

"Supersemar" is the "11 March Order" which Soeharto reportedly extracted from Soekarno and then
interpreted to assume virtual full powers executive power in 1966.
How Soeharto managed to get several generals to induce Soekarno to sign the decree has long been cloaked in controversy and mystery.

The full story has yet to be revealed

 

CRUCIAL DECREE GIVING SUHARTO POWER MISSING

A controversial presidential decree issued in March 1966 which helped catapult Suharto to power is missing, raising doubts about the legitimacy of his authority, the independent Media Indonesia daily newspaper reported Monday.
The paper said State Secretary Murdiono admitted for the first time that the government was unable to locate the original decree issued by then President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, granting broad political power to Suharto, then army chief of staff. The decree, issued amid widespread anti-Sukarno student unrest, has been widely viewed by historians as having allowed Suharto to crush the political opposition and stage a "bloodless coup."
Suharto, who turns 70 this year, was inaugurated as president in 1968. His current term expires in March 1993.
While Murdiono said misplacing such a key document was understandable given the chaotic circumstances of the time, one diplomat said the report could be used by the opposition to call Suharto's political legitimacy into question.

Political observers believe the report could be politically embarrassing and indicate that Suharto's authority is already on the decline. The aging leader has not yet announced whether he will seek a sixth five-year term as president.
Mainstream textbooks and popular history publications on modern Indonesia have typically presented the contents of the decree as being beyond dispute.
"People opposed to Suharto may now be better able to claim that the use of the decree was expanded beyond its original intention," said one diplomat

 

 

 

 

 

1966 Supersemar - Not a transfer of authority

 

 

Authenticity of this widely publicized document is being disputed
and is surrounded by mystery. The original is not available.
Therefore there are doubts as regards the exact wording of the document.

The original document, said to be typed on different letterhead, reportedly
included the stipulation that after restoring the situation Suharto should report
back and return the mandate to President Sukarno. This never happened
and Suharto used the publicized document to take over full power by converting it into a Parliamentary decree eventually leading to his appointment as President.
If the document proves to be false there could be serious historical implications.
Suharto's take-over as president could then be considered unconstitutional.


The 3 generals, Basuki Rachmat, Amir Machmud and M. Jusuf ,
who handled the Supersemar document are no longer alive.
(Picture from the book cover "Supersemar palsu" - see below)

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Antara Kesaktian dan Supersemar" 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Sukarno sent letter to Suharto
reminding him that he had overstepped his duties.

 

 

 

On 13 March 1966 President Sukarno sent Suharto another letter
reminding him that he had overstepped his duties
This letter was handed to Suharto
by
Dr. Jo Leimena and (then) Brig. General KKO Hartono.
They reported to Sukarno that they had delivered the letter and that Suharto's reply was:
"Tell President Sukarno that I assume responsibility for my actions.
Also, I will not be able to come to him in Bogor as I have a meeting with the military "


This indicates that the Supersemar letter
did not constitute a transfer of power by Sukarno to Suharto.
It indicates a coup by Suharto, taking over presidential powers by false statements.
The disappearance of the Supersemar letter tends to substantiate
the contention that it did not transfer power to Suharto as claimed.

 

 

 

After the elimination of the PKI and purge of the armed forces of pro-Sukarno elements, President Sukarno was left in an isolated, position. He signed Executive Order on f March 11, 1966 (Supersemar) which Suharto then used to take over supreme authority.
The problem is that the original Supersemar document has never been officially produced and is surrounded by mystery.

State Secretary Lt General Sudharmono

Admiral (Ret) Sudomo

 

 

On June 18, 2011 Admiral (Ret.) Sudomo explained to Editor that the document was being copied in the
office of State Secretary Sudharmono, and was never returned to the National Archive.

In his 1966 Independence Day speech President Sukarno officially stated that the Supersemar document
did not constitute a "Transfer of Presidential Authority".

This creates the problem of how to classify the assumption of Executive Powers by Suharto.
Was it a legal transfer of authority as purported, or was it an illegal take-over?
If it is based on a fake document this can be classified a "coup".
As long as the original is not found, this matter remains unresolved.

 

 

 

President asks to trace back and find Supersemar document

August 29 2009

Jakarta (ANTARA News) - President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
has asked the Indonesian National Archive (ANRI) to help the government trace back and look for the still missing authentic
document of the "Supersemar" (order of March 11, 1966, under which Soekarno handed over his powers as president to Soeharto).

 

 

"The President asked for the collection of information and data for follow up measures. It was reported that some staff members of the State Secretariat have some information, and the Head of State also asked
Hatta (Minister/State Secretary Hatta Rajasa) and Sudi (Cabinet Secretary Sudi Silalahi) to make follow up measures," Presidential spokesman Andi Malarangeng, along with head of the National Archive office
Djoko Utomo, told a press conference at the Presidential Office on Friday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIDEO NATIONAL ARCHIVE (ARSIP NASIONAL)

 

 

 

 Sukarno Pidato Tentang SUPERSEMAR

Supersemar: Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret

Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret atau Surat Perintah 11 Maret yang disingkat menjadi Supersemar adalah surat perintah yang ditandatangani oleh Presiden Republik Indonesia Soekarno pada tanggal 11 Maret 1966.
Surat ini berisi perintah yang menginstruksikan Soeharto, selaku Panglima Komando Operasi Keamanan dan Ketertiban (Pangkopkamtib) untuk mengambil segala tindakan yang dianggap perlu untuk mengatasi situasi keamanan yang buruk pada saat itu.

 

 

 

 

Statement Commander Eddy Tumengkol:
May 6, 2012

Regarding Supersemar :
The 3 army generals (Amir Machmud, Basuki Slamet, M. Jusuf) were flown to and from the Bogor palace by Navy Alouette II helicopters from the presidential helicopter escort flight (Flight Commander Ltcol/Commander Eddy Tumengkol).
More than just one return trip were made. Gen. Panggabean did not belong to the generals transported by the Alouettes.

 

 

 

 

 UPDATE JUNE 2011

 

SUPERSEMAR

The original document has not been found until now. There are 4 versions in circulation, showing slight differences in the signature of President Sukarno.

In hIs 17 August 1966 annual anniversary address President Sukarno emphasized that the "Supersemar" was not an authorization for transfer of Presidentiall power. It was an order to Suharto to, on behalf of the President, take all steps necessary to secure the safety of President and Nation, to restore security, order and stability to the country.

Admiral Sudomo was one of the most powerful leaders in the Suharto government.
His functions included Navy Chief of Staff, Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces,
Commander for the Restoration of Security and Order, Coordinating Minister for Political & Security Affairs,
Chairman National Advisory Council.

 

 

Admiral (Ret) Sudomo

The document was lost in the office of
the State Secretary where it was being copied.
It was never returned to the National Archive.

In an interview with Admiral (Ret.) Sudomo, Editor asked the following question:
Can you explain the mystery surrounding the Supersemar document? The whereabouts of the original document are still not known. Who will be able to answer the questions on the subject considering that the main figures involved are all deceased? Is it possible to obtain a factual explanation that can be written down in the history books?

It is an important matter that needs to be explained as it concerns
the transfer of power between two Presidents of Indonesia?

His reply: June 18, 2011:

No one knows where the original SUPERSEMAR document is.
According To Mr. Sudharmono,, then State Secretary in the Suharto government, the document was to be copied in the photocopy room. However, it was never returned to archive. Mr. Sudharmono has forgotten the name of the person who made the copy. Due to his busy schedule he did not find out until later that the original SUPERSEMAR document was not returned to archive.

In Our history books we should state that the whereabouts of the orginal document are not known.
The responsibility for the document lies with the State Secretariat.

We should consider this as a learning experience, teaching us that it is very important to have an archive for originals , especially in the case of important state documents of historical value.

Jakarta, 18 June 2011

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL ARCHIVE (ARSIP NATIONAL) VIDEO

 

 

  Sukarno : Supersemar bukanlah pelimpahan kekuasaan
Supersemar was not a Transfer of Authority

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ROESLAN ABDULGANI: 'Supersemar exists'
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 18, 2011
Duncan Graham

Excerpt

Reflections from former Foreign Affairs Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, Dr. H. Roeslan Abdulgani.

“Supersemar does exist. I have seen it. It is still in the hands of Harto. [Suharto, Indonesia’s second president.]

But it was misinterpreted by him to remove Sukarno”.

 

 

First published in Inside Indonesia Edition 77 Jan-March 2004, but now curiously absent from the magazine’s archives. Republished here to make it more accessible following the publishing of Frank Palmos' thesis on the Battle of Surabaya
(see stories below). Dr Abdulgani died in 2005.

Supersemar (Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret), or Letter of 11 March) was a letter allegedly written by Sukarno requesting that Suharto impose order following the 1965 coup. It was used as the legal authority transferring power to Suharto — but a copy has never surfaced.
There are probably as many anecdotes about the mysterious document and the events surrounding it as there are Indonesians. Very few who were close to the action are still alive and remember with clarity their experiences first hand.

The anecdote quoted above is by former Foreign Affairs Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Dr Roeslan (also known as Ruslan) Abdulgani, whose revolutionary and founding father credentials are stainless. They include a badly damaged right hand, the result of being strafed in 1948 by a Dutch plane. At the time he was riding a bike through Yogyakarta trying to save the young republic’s critical documents. He was treated by a Dutch doctor, and then imprisoned in hospital.

Now almost 90 and frail, he still has a sharp mind (“age is opportunity”), a powerful command of English, and some certainties not eroded by time.

 

 

These include his belief that the American Central Intelligence Agency was also involved in the 1965 coup in which six Indonesian generals were killed, precipitating the fall of Sukarno.

According to official Indonesian history, the killings were the result of a communist putsch.
Dr Roeslan claimed Sukarno had no foreknowledge of the coup. “He was very naive though not with women.
He was a politician, not a military man.
He thought he could make communism in Indonesia nationalistic and this infuriated Russia and China”.

Although 14 years younger, Dr Roeslan was closely aligned with Sukarno personally and politically, calling him ‘Indonesia’s George Washington’.
Despite this, Dr Roeslan survived the change of government and was sent to New York by Suharto’s New Order government to negotiate Indonesia’s re-entry into the United Nations.

He also grew to admire Suharto’s early reforms, but despised the later excesses of the president’s family and friends:

“He [Suharto] said there could be no prosperity without security and stability — and in this he was right”.
Through his daughter’s biography Dr Roeslan is quoted as describing Suharto as ‘a responsive and decent human being when free of family greed’.

 

 

 

 

 

11 Juni 2011

SUPERSEMAR

 Pemindahan kekuasaan dari Presiden Sukarno, presiden pertama R.I (1945-1967)., ke Suharto, presiden kedua R.I (1967-1998). dilakukan berdasarkan Surat Perintah 11 Maret 1966, lazim disebut dokumen Supersemar

Sayangnya, asli dokumen Supersemar bersejarah ini hingga kini tidak diketahui keberadaannya.

Dalam peredaran tampak 4 versi dengan


andatangan Sukarno yang agak berbeda .
Isinya diberitakan berbeda dengan
surat perintah asli yang ditandatangani
Presiden Sukarno.

4 different versions are in circulation.

The original was lost in the office of the Secretary Of State according to
Admiral (Ret) Sudomo

 

 

Untuk membuktikan ini penemuan dokumen Supersemar asli penting sekali mengingat peralihan kekuasaan presiden dari Sukarno ke Suharto berlangsung berdasarkan versi yang diberitakan berbeda dari naskah Supersemar asli.

Dalam pidatonya 17 Agustus 1966 Presiden Sukarno menegaskan bahwa dokumen Supersemar tidak merupakan pemindahan kekuasaan presiden (transfer of authority) tetapi berbentuk Surat Perintah pengamanan kepada LetJen Suharto, perintah pengamanan jalannya pemerintahan, perintah pengamanan keselamatan pribadi presiden, perintah pengamanan wibawa presiden, perintah pengamanan ajaran presiden.

Surat Perintah dalam peredaran berupa perintah kepada LetJen Suharto untuk mengambil segala tindakan jang dianggap perlu, untuk terdjaminnja keamanan dan ketenangan serta kestabilan djalannja Pemerintahan dan djalannja Revolusi, serta mendjamin keselamatan penyerahan pemerintahan untuk keutuhan Bangsa dan Negara Republik Indonesia,.

Hingga sekarang naskah aslinya belum ada pada Arsip Nasional.

Karena dokumen SUPERSEMAR telah dipergunakan untuk mengalihkan kekusaan Presiden Sukarno ke Prersiden Suharto, penemuan naskah asli sangat penting .
Hingga kini sejarah kita masih diliputi kontroversi tentang dasar hukum pengalihan kepresidenan dari Sukarno ke Suharto: Apakah hal ini merupakan pengalihan kekuasaan yang direstui oleh Presiden Sukarno, atau apakah dalam buku sejarah kejadian ini harus dicatat sebagai suatu perebutan kekuasaan.

Selama Supersemar asli tidak ditemukanl, kontroversi ini akan tetap merupakan halaman hitam di buku sejarah kita.
Dalam usaha menyelesaikan persoalan ini Presiden S.B. Yudhoyono pada tanggal 29 Agustus 2009 meminta agar Arsip Nasional membantu melacak dan mencari keberadaan dokumen Supersemar asli ini. Presiden juga memerintahkan Sekretariat Negara untuk ikut terlibat serta menelusuri jejak naskah Supersemar ke keluarga-keluarga mantan pejabat negara, atau petinggi TNI yang dulu pernah terlibat dalam perumusan dan penerbitan Supersemar.
Hingga kini hasil belum ada.

Dengan harapan soal ini dapat dijernihkan, penulis menyampaikan pertanyaan dibawah ini kepada Laksamana (Purnawiran) Sudomo, sebagai pejabat penting dalam pemerintahan Suharto, a.l. sebagai KSAL, WAPANGAB, PANGKOPKAMTIB, Menko POLKAM dan Ketua DPA.

Pertanyaan:
Dapat Bapak memberi tanggapan atas misteri sekitar dokumen asli Supersemar? Dimana dokumen ini berada?. Tetap belum ada kejelasan tentang dokumen Supersemar asli. Siapa dapat menjawab pertanyaan2 sekitar "misteri" ini mengingat tokoh2 penting yang bersangkutan dalam hal ini telah meninggal dunia? Apakan soal ini dapat dijelaskan sehingga fakta2 dapat tercatat dalam buku sejarah? Bukankah hal ini penting di jelaskan karena merupakan pemindahan kekuasaan antara 2 Presiden Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

Anggap saja kasus ini sebagai "learning proses"
bahwa arsip asli itu penting sekali, apalagi terkait
dengan suatu peristiwa sejarah penting dari negara dan bangsa

.

Jawaban beliau 18 Juni 2011 adalah sbb.:
Dokumen asli SUPERSEMAR tidak seorang pun yang mengetahui dimana terselib disimpan.
Menurut keterangan Bapak Sudharmono, Sekretaris Negara semasa Presiden Suharto, waktu itu dibawa keruangan foto copy di Sekneg untuk di copy, tetapi tidak kembali keruang arsip. Bapak Sudharmono tidak ingat lagi siapa yang disuruh fotocopy. Karena terlalu sibuk, Pak Sudharmono lama sekali baru mengetahui bahwa dokumen SUPERSEMAR Asli tersebut belum kembali keruang arsip.

Dalam buku sejarah harus dicantumkan bahwa dokumen SUPERSEMAR asli belum diketahui.
Ada dimana dan tetap yang bertanggung jawab mantan SEKNEG semasa Presiden Suharto.
Anggap saja kasus ini sebagai "learning process" bahwa arsip asli itu penting sekali, apalagi terkait dengan suatu peristiwa sejarah penting dari negara dan bangsa.
Saya tidak tahu apakah ada Undang-Undang yang mengatur batas waktu "validnya" suatu dokumen, sehingga siapapun adanya kewajiban untuk menyimpan arsip dengan baik, rapi dan aman.


Jakarta, 18 Juni 2011

 

Admiral (Ret.I Sudomo's explanation
regarding the disappearance of the original Supersemar document

June 18, 2011

 

 

Apakah kita akan berhasil menemukan dokumen asli?
Ataukah kita harus menutup buku sejarah perihal ini dengan catatan
untuk menganggap hilangnya dokumen bersejarah ini sebagai "learning experience"? - Editor

 

Will we have to record the disappearance of this document in our history archives
as a "LEARNING EXPERIENCE" AS SUGGESTED? -
Editor.

 

 

 

 


Refleksi SUPERSEMAR

PERSEMAR
OPINI | 10 March 2012 | 08:04

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) adalah dinas rahasia pemerintah Amerika Serikat (AS). CIA dibentuk tanggal 18 September 1947 dan tugas utamanya adalah penyokong informasi terkait dengan keamanan negara. Perang Dingin antara Uni Soviet dan AS yang saling berebut pengaruh, CIA digunakan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang perkembangan pengaruh komunis dan salah satunya adalah Indonesia.

Pengaruh komunis di Indonesia sangat mengkhawatirkan bagi AS karena Soekarno yang merupakan tokoh besar mempunyai ajaran NASAKOM (Nasionalis, Agama, dan Komunis). Soekarno sangat anti kapitalisme barat karena menganggap kapitalisme itulah yang mengisap ekonomi suatu negara.

Kekhawatiran AS terhadap pengaruh komunis di Indonesia dilatar belakangi oleh jatuhnya Cina ke tangan komunis. Pengaruh komunis merembet ke Vietnam, Laos, Kamboja, dan Malaysia. Pada waktu itu Vietnam bangkit melawan Prancis (sekutu AS) yang didukung Cina. Setelah Prancis kalah dari Vietnam, AS turun tangan sendiri untuk mencegah supaya komunis tidak mendominasi, tetapi justru AS kalah di Vietnam.

Setelah kekalahan itu, AS bersama sekutunya mulai mengfokuskan pengaruhnya ke Indonesia. Alasannya karena AS mencemaskan Teori Domino, bahwa komunisme di Indo-China (Vietnam-Kamboja) bisa bersambung dengan komunisme di Indonesia, kemudian menciptakan poros Jakarta-Pyongyang-Beijing yang sangat ditakuti AS.[1] Berawal dari sini bisa ditelusuri bagaimana peran yang dimainkan oleh AS untuk merebut pengaruh komunisme di Indonesia. Salah satu tokoh sentral komunis di Indonesia adalah Soekarno, maka penggulingan Soekarno adalah cara terbaik untuk menang melawan pengaruh komunis bagi AS.

Peristiwa Gestapu
Gestapu (Gerakan September Tiga Puluh) adalah Peristiwa penculikan terhadap enam jendral yang disebut sebagai Dewan Jendral. Keenam jenderal tersebut adalah Letjen. A. Yani, Mayjen. Suprapto, Mayjen. S. Parman, Mayjen. Haryono, M.T., Brigjen. Pandjaitan, dan Brigjen. Sutoyo.[2] Mayat para Dewan Jendral ditemukan di sebuah kawasan yang disebut dengan Lubang Buaya, cukup jauh dari Pangkalan Udara Halim, akan tetapi dapat ditempuh dengan jalan tembus. Pada waktu itu A. H. Nasution berhasil lolos dari penculikan.[3] Hal ini tentu merupakan kejadian yang sangat luar biasa karena dalam satu malam enam jendral terbunuh.

Berbagai versi tentang dalang dari peristiwa Gestapu bermunculan, salah satunya adalah CIA (pemerintah AS). CIA bekerjasama dengan sebuah klik AD untuk memprovokasi PKI, dengan tujuan akhir menggulingkan Soeharto.[4] Versi ini sangat kuat mengingat AS dalam rangka Perang Dingin berusaha mati-matian agar Indonesia bersih dari komunis.

Salah satu bukti kedekatan AD dengan CIA menurut Peter Dale Scott dalam paper singkatnya yang berjudul “Konspirasi Soeharto-CIA: Penggulingan Soekarno 1965-1967” dibuktikan bahwa pada 1 Agustus 1958 AS memberikan bantuan militer ke Indonesia mencapai $ 20 juta setahun. Tendensi AS memberikan bantuan karena menganggap hanya AD yang mampu mengimbangi kekuatan PKI. Lalu didirikanlah SESKOAD tahun 1958 di Bandung yang mendapatkan dukungan penuh dari Pentagon, RAND dan Ford Foundation.[5]

CIA sebagai dalang dari peristiwa Gestapu juga didukung oleh konspirasi Inggris-AS untuk menjatuhkan Soekarno.
Inggris terlibat karena selain sebagai sekutu AS, Inggris mempunyai kepentingan menyingkirkan Soekarno karena melakukan konfrontasi politik “Ganyang Malaysia”. Soekarno melakukan konfrontasi itu sebagai penentangan terhadap maksud Inggris untuk mendirikan negara British Malaysia. Konspirasi ini dilakukan dengan mendorong kudeta Gestapu agar sayap kanan dari tentara Indonesia punya alasan untuk menghabisi saingan-sangingannya di pusat AD, dan degan demikian melapangkan jalan untuk menghabisi kaum kiri sipil yang sudah lama direncanakan, dan pada akhirnya mendirikan suatu kediktatoran militer.[6]

Dewi Soekarno, putri Jepang yang diperistri Bung Karno, merasa yakin bahwa CIA ikut bermain dalam proses kejatuhan Bung Karno. Dewi mengungkapkan 14 item dokumen CIA yang mengindikasikan adanya kudeta terhadap bung karno.
Dokumen rahasia itu terdiri dari 10 lembar folio da terdiri dari tiga bagian. Yang pertama adalah surat pribadi bung karno kepda dewi, yang kedua merupakan dokumen salinan telegram Duta Besar AS di Indonesia Howard Jones. Dokumen ketiga adalah dokumen Gillchirst yang menjelaskan keberadaan dewan jendral. Dokumen td mengidinkasikan keterlibatan AD dalam peristiwa Gestapu.

Dokumen Howard Jones betapa pun mencerminkan AS begitu memperhatikan dengan rinci butir demi butir perkembangan yang terjadi ditanah air di penghujung akhir era kekuasaan Soekarno. Tentang bagaimana AS dan Inggris melakukan intervensi politis, agaknya bukan persoalan mendasar, yang substansial adalah betapa seringnya pihak barat mendikte perkembangan yang terjadi di negara berkembang untuk membendung penyebaran ajaran komunisme yang dianggap paling berbahaya.[7]

Supersemar dan Tergulingnya Soekarno
Sebagai akibat dari peristiwa Gestafu adalah situasi keamanan dan ekonomi menjadi sangat buruk kemudian itu yang mendasari terjadinya aksi mahasiswa menuntut Tritura (bubarkan PKI, bubarkan 100 menteri, dan turunkan harga).[8] Tuntutan pembubaran PKI akibat dari timbulnya opini masyarakat bahwa PKI-lah yang bertanggung jawab atas peristiwa Gestapu.

Mengatasi masalah keamanan yang semakin mengkhawatirkan Soekarno menugaskan Soeharto dengan Supersemar. Namun, Soeharto menginterpretasikan Supersemar ini menjadi sebuah “pelimpahan kekuasaan”. Hal ini terlihat dari bagaimana Soeharto merespon Supersemar bersama MPRS membuat Kepres 1/3/1966 tentang pembubaran PKI dan pelarangan PKI di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Kepres ini ditandatangani oleh Soeharto yang mengatasnamakan Presiden Soekarno, tentu hal ini menjadi janggal karena bagaimana mungkin seorang Panglima AD dapat membuat Kepres.

Supersemar digunakan Soeharto sebagai pintu masuk untuk merebut kekuasaan dari Soekarno yang sudah direncanakannya dengan matang. Pada 8 Maret 1967, Sidang Istimewa MPRS yang berlangsung dengan punuh ketegangan dan perdebatan alot menyepakati tentang nasib Soekarno. Antara lain disebutkan ketidakmampuan Soekarno melaksanakan petanggungjawaban konstitusional, disamping kegagalan mengimplemantasikan sentimen dan keputusan yang dibuat MPRS. Selanjutnya, Soekarno digantikan oleh Soeharto selaku pejabat Presiden Ripublik Indonesia.

Penutup
Tergulingnya Soekarno dari kursi presiden adalah kemenangan besar AS dan sekutunya. Perang Dingin yang merupakan perebutan pengaruh antara AS dan Uni Soviet menjadi alasan utama. Soekarno yang merupakan tokoh besar di Indonesia yang beraliran komunis bisa digulingkan dengan konspirasi-konspirasi AS dengan sekutunya melalui dukungannnya terhadap AD.

Soeharto sebagai tokoh utama dalam AD menjadi sangat kuat atas dukungan-dukungan AS. Peristiwa Gestapu merupakan salah bukti kekuatan AD, dimana dalam satu malam enam jendral terbunuh.
Motif utama dibalik semua peristiwa ini adalah motif ekonomi, salah satunya yang masih bisa kita lihat saat ini adalah Freeport. Menurut Peter Dale Scott, Freeport merupakan bentuk kesepakatan antara AD dengan AS, dan yang menarik kesepakatan itu dilakukan pada saat tanggal terjadinya Gestapu. Hal lain yang tidak bisa kita pungkiri bahwa memang benar kapitalisme mendominasi di kehidupan ekonomi dan politik bangsa Indonesia sampai sekarang.

[1] Center for Information Analysis. 1999. Gerakan 30 September, Antara Fakta dan rekayasa: Berdasarkan Kesaksian para Pelaku Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Media Presindo. hlm. 120.
[2] Rosihan Anwar. 2006. Sukarno, Tentara, PKI: Segitiga Kekuasaan sebelum Prahara Politik 1961-1965. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia. hlm. 377.
[3] Benedict Anderson dan Ruth T. Mc Vey diterjemahkan oleh Galuh H. E Akoso dan Yeri Ekomunajat. 2001. Kudeta 1 Oktober 1965: Sebuah Analisis Awal. Yogyakarta: LKPSM. hlm. 22.
[4] Center for Information Analysis. op. cit. hlm. 120.
[5] Ringkasan M. Adnan Anwar dari tulisan Prof. Peter Dale Scott. Konspirasi Soeharto-CIA: Penggulingan Soekarno 1965-1967.
[6] Victor M. Fic. 2007. Kudeta 1 Oktober 1965: Sebuah Studi Tentang Konspirasi. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia. hlm 3-4.
[7] Lembaga Analisis Informasi. 2003. Kontroversi Supersemar: Dalam Transisi Kekuasaan Soekarno-Soeharto. Media Presindo. hlm 82-84.
[8] Eros Djarot.2006.Misteri Supersemar.Jakarta: Mediakita. hlm.5.

 

 

 

 

President asks to trace back and find Supersemar document

August 29 2009

Jakarta (ANTARA News) - President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has asked the Indonesian National Archive (ANRI) to help the government trace back and look for the still missing authentic document of the "Supersemar" (order of March 11, 1966, under which Soekarno handed over his powers as president to Soeharto).

"The President asked for the collection of information and data for follow up measures. It was reported that some staff members of the State Secretariat have some information, and the Head of State also asked Hatta (Minister/State Secretary Hatta Rajasa) and Sudi (Cabinet Secretary Sudi Silalahi) to make follow up measures," Presidential spokesman Andi Malarangeng, along with head of the National Archive office Djoko Utomo, told a press conference at the Presidential Office on Friday.
Earlier, Djoko met the President to discuss many things with regard to the national archive.

Andi said the President at the meeting also asked ANRI to help find the authentic document of Supersemar by asking all the officials of the former governments who may have an idea on the whereabouts of the invaluable historial document.
Djoko hoped the Supersemar document would be returned to the state like the Proclamation text which had been hand written but without the then President Soekarno`s signature, and it was not until 1992 that it was returned to the state.

The proclamation text was typed written by Sayuti Malik, and returned to the state in 1960.
Besides Supersemar, the President, Andi added, also hoped ANRI would make a document of all the important documents on the life of the state and national like the general elections, DPR (House of Representatives)and MPR (People`s Consultative Council) decisions, and verdicts and rulings of the Constitutional Court.

Djoko also said ANRI will also try to seek and collect famous regional songs like "Rasa Sayange" which was also recognized by many other countries, for documentation.

The President planned to dedicate a biorama building of the history of the Indonesian nation at Jalan Ampera Raya 7, Jakarta, on monday (Aug 31).(*)

Editor: Heru
COPYRIGHT © 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 Supersemar

Authenticity of this widely publicized document is being disputed and is surrounded by mystery.
The original is not available.
Therefore there are doubts as regards the exact wording of the document.

The original document, said to be typed on different letterhead, reportedly included the stipulation that after
restoring the situation Suharto should report back and return the mandate to President Sukarno.

This never happened and Suharto used the publicized document to take over full power by converting it into a Parliamentary decree eventually leading to his appointment as President.

If the document proves to be false there could be serious historical implications.
Suharto's take-over as president could then be considered unconstitutional.

 

 

 

 

SUPERSEMAR
Treacherous end of a Presidency

On March 11, 1966, Sukarno signed an executive order (Supersemar) that (reportedly) transferred all his power to Suharto. The Supersemar document is surrounded by mystery as the original has never been made available.
Suharto placed Sukarno under house arrest where he died on June, 21 1970.

The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was apparently misinterpreted and used by Soeharto as the basis for the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order" under Sukarno.

There are multiple versions in circulation, the original document has not been found, reportedly kept by Suharto.

 

 

 

 

SUPERSEMAR DOCUMENT

The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret (Order of March the Eleventh) was a document ostensibly signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. Gen. Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed necessary" to restore order to the chaotic situation during the Indonesian killings of 1965–66.

The Supersemar document came to be a transfer of executive power from Sukarno to SuhartHistoricel Supersemar document dated 11 March 1966
A mandate to Suharto in which Sukarno instructs
Lt General Suharto to, on his behalf, take any action considered
necessary to restore security, order and stability to the country.

This mandate is generally considered the start of
the transfer of power from Sukarno to Suharto.

The disappearance of the original

One of the most obvious oddities regarding the Supersemar is that the original document can no longer be traced and the existence of multiple versions Signatures of Sukarno on the four versions

One of the publications to appear since the fall of Suharto alleges that there were several versions of the Supersemar (Center for Information Analysis 1999).
Even before the fall of Suharto, an official publication commemorating
30 years of Indonesian independence reproduced one version of Supersemar, while an officially sanctioned high school history textbook featured a different version.

 

 

 

 

Vice President
20 October
2004 - 2009

Vice President Jusuf Kalla has stated that there is no doubt of Suharto's involvement in the disappearance of the the Supersemar document:

"The original Supersemar document which could not be found in the last 40 years, was in the hands of President Suharto"

He gave this statement in Jakarta on March 10, 2006 on the occasion of the launching of the Memoirs of General M. Jusuf.

 

 

IN SUMMARY

March 11, 1966, was a turning point in Indonesia's history. It was the day the late President Sukarno issued an order, later known as Supersemar (Surat Perintah 11 Maret, or the March 11 Order) to Soeharto, then a major general.

The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was used by Soeharto as the basis of the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order", which referred to the era of "Guided Democracy" under Sukarno.

President Sukarnop stated that it "was not a transfer of authority"

One of the most obvious oddities regarding the Supersemar is that the original document can no longer be traced. Although Indonesia was in a fairly chaotic state at the time, it is surprising that more care was not taken to preserve a document that school history books cite as the legitimization of Suharto's ensuing actions. After all, the original document of the Indonesian Declaration of Independence is still preserved.

The disappearance of the original
The Supersemar document is still surrounded by mystery. The original document has disappeared, Three versions are in circulation. Why different versions? In other words, why should there be a Fake Supersemar document? Have certain parts been covered up?

 

 

 

 

Supersemar

March 11, 1966, was a turning point in Indonesia's history. It was the day the late president Sukarno issued an order, later known as Supersemar (Surat Perintah 11 Maret, or the March 11 Order) to Soeharto, then a major general.
The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was used by Soeharto as the basis of the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order", which referred to the era of "Guided Democracy" under Sukarno.

The rationale for the change, as Soeharto stated in his first "State of the Union Address" as acting president in 1967, was that Sukarno's Old Order had been a deviation and betrayal of the 1945 Constitution, particularly the ideology of Pancasila (five principles) embodied in its Preamble, and Soeharto's New Order was meant to be a "total correction" of that deviation, for his New Order would be based on a "pure and consistent" implementation of Pancasila, whatever that meant.

 

 

 

SUPERSEMAR

Treacherous end of a Presidency

Background

March 11, 1966, was a turning point in Indonesia's history. It was the day the late president Sukarno issued an order,
later known as Supersemar (Surat Perintah 11 Maret, or the March 11 Order) to Soeharto, then a major general.
The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret (Order of March the Eleventh) was a document ostensibly signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. Gen. Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed necessary" to restore order in the chaotic situation following the events of the previous September
The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was used by Soeharto as the basis of the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order", which referred to the era of "Guided Democracy" under Sukarno.
Supersemar, a letter signed by Sukarno 11/3/66 handing over powers to the military, is the document used to justify the New Order. Rumour is strong that Soeharto has never publicized its second page, which lists many conditions on his power. M Jusuf is widely supposed to have the original text.

One of the most obvious oddities regarding the Supersemar is that the original document can no longer be traced. Although Indonesia was in a fairly chaotic state at the time, it is surprising that more care was not taken to preserve a document that school history books cite as the legitimization of Suharto's ensuing actions. After all, the original document of the Indonesian Declaration of Independence is still preserved.

The disappearance of the original
The Supersemar document is still surrounded by mystery. Three versions are in circulation.
Why different versions? In other words, why should there be a Fake Supersemar document?
Have certain parts been covered up?

The existence of multiple versions
One of the publications to appear since the fall of Suharto alleges that there were several versions of the Supersemar (Center for Information Analysis 1999). Even before the fall of Suharto, an official publication commemorating 30 years of Indonesian independence reproduced one version of Supersemar, while an officially sanctioned high school history textbook featured a different version. [2][7]

There are a number of differences between the various versions of the Supersemar:

* In two versions, there is a missing plural marker after the word "force" (Angkatan) in section III, paragraph 2
* In the same two versions, there is an extra definite article marker after the word "responsibilities" (tanggung-djawab") in section III paragraph 3
* One version runs to two pages, whereas the other versions are all on the one page.
* Sukarno's signature in one version lacks the dot-and-horizontal-line after the word "Soekarno".
* There are also minor differences in the proximity and shapes of the letters. [8]

 

 

Several questionable points in the widely circulating "Supersemar" document:

The document shows 2 logos: The Garuda logo on the left and the rice and cotton logo
in the centre.
A Presidential Decree usually only shows the rice/cotton logo.
The Garuda Pancasila logo is only used by government departments.

The spelling also raises questions:
The new spelling was introduced in 1972. This document purportedly generated in 1996 already uses the new spelling which was not intrduced until 1972.
The name "Sukarno" is spelled with a "u" as per the new spellings, instead of the "oe" commonly used in 1966.

In 1966 we did not have the use of photocopiers yet and documents were multiplied using stencils.

 


President Sukarno

President Suharto

J. Soedjata Djiwandono reflects on two presidents –Sukarno and Soeharto.
(the leading figures in the Gestapu scenario - Editor))

The writer, a political analyst, received his PhD
from The London School of Economics and Political Science.

 

Reflections on fall of Sukarno, and the rise of Soeharto
March 15th, 2006
J. Soedjati Djiwandono, Jakarta

Scanning the print media around March 11, it was clear that few, if any, remembered, or perhaps most just ignored or could not care less, what happened on March 11 in 1966. During the 32 years of the New Order regime under
Soeharto, March 11 was regarded as sacred.

Several important national occasions were later held on that date, such as the beginning session of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), the supreme governing body of the republic, according to the 1945 Constitution, until the
onset of the "era of reform" after the resignation of Soeharto in 1998.

March 11, 1966, was a turning point in Indonesia's history. It was the day the late President Sukarno issued an order, later known as Supersemar (Surat Perintah 11 Maret, or the March 11 Order) to Soeharto, then a major general.

The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was used by Soeharto as the basis of the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order", which referred to the era of "Guided Democracy" under Sukarno.

The rationale for the change, as Soeharto stated in his first "State of the Union Address" as acting president in 1967, was that Sukarno's Old Order had been a deviation and betrayal of the 1945 Constitution, particularly the
ideology of Pancasila (five principles) embodied in its Preamble, and Soeharto's New Order was meant to be a "total correction" of that deviation, for his New Order would be based on a "pure and consistent" implementation of
Pancasila, whatever that meant.

Yet, Supersemar has been full of mystery. Until now nobody knows, perhaps except Soeharto himself, where the original order is. Three generals -- Basuki Rachmat, Amir Mahmud and M. Yusuf, all dead now, were Soeharto's messengers to
see Sukarno in Bogor to receive the order. The first died in 1967 of a heart attack. The other two died much later, both taking the secret to their graves.


Some time after the resignation of Soeharto in 1998, however, a TV station rebroadcast Sukarno's speech about the March 11 order. This proved the existence of Supersemar. The most important part of Sukarno's usual fiery speech was his emphasis that the March 11 order was "not a transfer of authority". In fact, he said "poverty" instead of "authority", but he
immediately corrected his slip of the tongue.

In other words, Soeharto clearly interpreted the order to his own advantage, in the interest of power. That interpretation was sustained by having Supersemar firmly entrenched in a decision by the powerful MPR (then the provisional MPRS), especially considering that the 1945 Constitution provided no mechanisms for judicial reviews or the separation of powers with an effective system of checks and balances. Indeed, in the face of a student demonstration (if I
remember correctly, against the Taman Mini Indonesia Indah project in 1972), Soeharto threatened to use the power of supersemar.


A huge number of articles and books have been published over the years since the Gestapu, the Indonesian acronym for the "September 30 Movement". Scholars and journalists across the world have analyzed and attempted to understand the
Gestapu, its aims, the forces behind it, and other aspects. Yet so many questions remain to be answered, and perhaps will remain unanswered.

From the dozens of books and articles that I have perused over the years, perhaps all I can say is some may be closer to the truth than others. After >all, the "truth" of an affair such as the Gestapu may be too complex to >understand completely. Using an article by W.F. Wertheim, Soeharto and the >Untung Coup: The missing link in Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 1 and 2, winter 1970, as a starting point for her analysis, a PhD thesis later published by Nawaz B Mody of Bombay University, Indonesia under Soeharto (1987) is probably, I believe, as close to the truth as anyone has gotten.

Yet what is the "truth" of anything, anyway? What sounds logical, coherent and sensible may not be true, while what is true may not sound logical, coherent and sensible, particularly in the circumstances prevailing in Indonesia at the
time of the complex Gestapu affair.

One of the most recent books was by Antonie C.A. Dake, Berkas-berkas Soekarno 1965-1967, Kronologi Suatu Keruntuhan (2005), which while using a large number of ideas and facts from lots of largely secondary sources, does not come to any
conclusion. Yet all the ideas and facts may help change previous conclusions, which may in the end result in a better understanding of what happened around the Gestapu in 1965.

First, the Gestapu was not really a coup d'etat, because Sukarno, a dictatorial ruler, remained in control. It was ridiculous that for some time he was suspected of being involved in the "coup d'etat". It was, indeed, a struggle for power, involving not just two, but at least three "centers of powers":
Sukarno, the Army, or particularly a group of Army generals, and the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI).

There might have been a fourth "center" of power, a question that remains to be answered. Will it ever be answered? There is no need for elaboration here. However, for those interested, Prof. Nawaz B. Mody, among others, is trying to provide the answer, supported by, among other sources, the memoirs of Sukarno's close aides Dr. Soebandrio and Omar Dhani, who have made allusions to that effect.

The writer, a political analyst, received his PhD from The London School of
Economics and Political Science.

 

 


SUPERSEMAR PALSU
(False Supersemar document)
by A.Pambudi.

Published by Media Pressindo

The document is still surrounded by mystery. Three versions are in circulation.
Why different versions?
In other words, why should there be a Fake Supersemar document?
Have certain parts been covered up?

 

 

 

MISTERI SUPERSEMAR (The Supersemar Mystery)
By Eros Djarot and others.

Published by Media Kita
Includes interview with Ali Ebram who typed the original document.

Quotes:

Ret. Major General Kemal Idris in reference to Suharto's non-appearance when summoned
by Sukarno due to illness: "Who says so? I came to his house and he was fit.

General Nasution: Many doubts have been expressed as regards contents of the document.
Was Bung karno willing to surrender his power? No. He wanted to stay in power for life, remain a lifelong president of Indonesia. 

 

 

Supersemar, a letter signed by Sukarno 11/3/66 handing over powers to the military, is the document used to justify the New Order. Rumour is strong that Soeharto has never publicized its second page, which lists many conditions on his power. M Jusuf is widely supposed to have the original text.

Jenderal M Jusuf
by Atmadji Sumarkidjo

General Jusuf died 7 September 2004
His biographer states on page 186 that in May 1991 General Jusuf showed him a photocopy of a 2-page document statng "This is is the original text of the 11 March 1966 instruction" .

 

 

H. Maulwi Saelan
Testimony of Tjakrabirawa Vice Commander:
From the 1945 Revolution to the 1965 Coup.

Bung Karno as quoted:

Saelan, percayalah!
Saya yakin nanti sejarah mengungkapkan kebenaran
dan siapa yang sebetulnya benar, Soeharto atau Soekarno.

(Translation:)
Saelan: believe it!
I am convinced that history will reveal the truth
on who was right, Soekarno or Soeharto
.

(Tjakrabirawa: Presidential Palace Guard)

 

 

 

Dr. H. Subandrio
Kesaksianku tentang G30S

Dr. Subandrio's statement reflecting
his knowledge and experience regarding the "Gestapu" affair.

He states that the objective of his writing is :
" to straighten history - to set straight what has commonly been distorted".
Dr. Subandrio, was Foreign Minister under President Sukarno

NOTE:

Dr. Subandrio was sentenced to death by the Extraordinary Military Court on charges
of being involved in the "30th of September Movement," although there was no real evidence that Subandrio knew of the coup attempt in advance or played any part in it
(he was in Sumatra at the time). This sentence was afterwards reduced to life imprisonment. He served until 1995, when he was released due to ill health.
He died in Jakarta in 2004.

 

 

 


Supersemar (1): Misteri setelah 46 tahun

Posted on March 11 2012 by Johan simamora

Empat puluh enam tahun berlalu, misteri Surat Perintah 11 Maret 1966 (Supersemar) hingga kini belum juga terpecahkan. Di mana naskah asli surat tersebut juga masih belum bisa ditemukan.
Keraguan akan keaslian naskah Supersemar yang disimpan Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia (ANRI) muncul setelah tumbangnya Orde Baru (Orba) pada 1998. Keraguan publik soal otentisitas surat perintah dari Presiden Soekarno ke Menteri Panglima Angkatan Darat, Letjen Soeharto, kala itu semakin diperkuat oleh beberapa saksi sejarah bekas tahanan politik Orba yang akhirnya buka suara.

Sejumlah versi proses terbitnya Supersemar pun beredar. Entah siapa yang benar. Namun dari sejumlah keterangan, yang tidak bisa dibantah adalah Supersemar yang disimpan di ANRI adalah palsu.
Supersemar yang disimpan di etalase arsip negara itu kini ada tiga versi versi. Pertama, yakni surat yang berasal dari Sekretariat Negara. Surat itu terdiri dari dua lembar, berkop Burung Garuda, diketik rapi dan di bawahnya tertera tanda tangan beserta nama ‘Sukarno’.

Sementara surat kedua berasal dari Pusat Penerangan TNI AD. Surat ini terdiri dari satu lembar dan juga berkop Burung Garuda. Ketikan surat versi kedua ini tampak tidak serapi pertama, bahkan terkesan amatiran. Jika versi pertama tertulis nama ‘Sukarno’, versi kedua tertulis nama ‘Soekarno’.

Untuk versi ketiga, lebih aneh lagi. Surat yang terakhir diterima ANRI itu terdiri dari satu lembar, tidak berkop dan hanya berupa salinan. Tanda tangan Soekarno di versi ketiga ini juga tampak berberda dari versi pertama dan kedua.

Kepala ANRI, M Asichin, memastikan ketiga surat itu adalah Supersemar palsu. Sebab, lazimnya surat kepresidenan, seharusnya kop surat Supersemar berlambang ‘bintang, padi dan kapas.’
Dari segi isi, kata Asichin, beberapa versi Supersemar tersebut relatif sama. Hanya ada perbedaan dari versi pertama dan kedua. Surat pertama terdiri dari empat poin yakni, ‘I Mengingat’, ‘II Menimbang’, ‘III Memutuskan/Memerintahkan’ dan ‘IV Selesai.

Benedict Anderson, pakar sejarah Indonesia asal Amerika Serikat, pernah mengatakan Supersemar asli sengaja dihilangkan. Hal itu didapatkan Anderson dari pengakuan seorang tentara yang bertugas di Istana Bogor, tempat Supersemar dibuat.

Tanpa menyebut nama dan pangkat tentara tersebut, Anderson mengatakan, Supersemar asli berkop surat Markas Besar Angkatan Darat (MBAD). Bukan kop surat dengan lambang Burung Garuda seperti yang ada sekarang.

Jelas keterangan ini menyudutkan Soeharto, yang saat itu menjabat Panglima Angkatan Darat. Sebab, dengan Supersemar berkop surat MBAD menunjukkan surat perintah itu memang diinginkan oleh Soeharto. Apalagi, muncul versi Soekarno dipaksa oleh beberapa jenderal utusan Soeharto untuk meneken Supersemar di bawah todongan senjata.

Jenderal M Jusuf, salah satu petinggi AD yang menemui Soekarno di Istana Bogor, pernah mengklaim memiliki naskah Supersemar. ANRI pernah berkali-kali meminta keterangan kepada Menteri Perindustrian Kabinet Dwikora itu. Namun, hingga akhir hayat M Jusuf pada 8 September 2004, upaya itu gagal.

Pada 31 Agustus 2005, ANRI pernah memawancarai keponakan M Jusuf, Andi Heri di Makassar. “Namun pengakuan keluarga katanya ‘kami tidak pernah menyimpan’,” ujar Asichin.

Pada 2008, pengakuan lain dibuat oleh Ubaydillah Thalib, putra Salim Thalib, staf intel Komando Operasi Tertinggi Gabungan-5 (G-5 KOTI). Thalib mengatakan ayahnya, yang meninggal 2002 lalu, pernah bercerita kepadanya bahwa Supersemar yang ada selama ini adalah palsu.
Menurut Ubay, ayahnya sempat melihat sekilas teks tersebut saat diperintahkan oleh Letkol Sudharmono untuk menyimpan di ruangannya. “Tapi sayangnya yang melihat teks Supersemar itu hanya beberapa orang,” kata Ubay.

 

 

 

Supersemar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret (Order of March the Eleventh) was a document ostensibly signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. Gen. Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed necessary" to restore order to the chaotic situation during the Indonesian killings of 1965–66.

In effect, the Supersemar came to be a transfer of executive power from Sukarno to Suharto.

 Background

On September 30, 1965, a group calling itself the 30 September Movement killed six senior Army generals, seized control of the center of Jakarta and issued a number of decrees over Republic of Indonesia Radio. Suharto and his allies defeated the movement, but Sukarno was fatally weakened. The Army accused its long standing rival, the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), of being behind the "coup attempt" and an anti-Communist purge ensued. Over the next few months, Suharto and the army seized the initiative, and during a cabinet meeting (which Suharto did not attend), troops without insignia surrounded the presidential palace where the meeting was being held. Sukarno was advised to leave the meeting, and did so, flying to the presidential palace in Bogor, 60 km south of Jakarta, by helicopter. Later that afternoon, three Army generals, Maj. Gen. Basuki Rahmat, Minister for Veteran Affairs, Brig. Gen. M Jusuf, Minister for Basic Industry and Brig. Gen. Amirmachmud, Commander of the V/Jaya Jakarta Military Area Command, visited Sukarno and came away with the signed Supersemar, which they then presented to Suharto. The next day, Suharto used the powers thus conferred on him to ban the PKI, and on March 18, fifteen Sukarno loyalist ministers were arrested. Suharto changed the composition of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS), and in March 1967 it voted to strip Sukarno of his powers and appointed Suharto acting president. In 1968, the MPRS removed the word 'acting', and Suharto remained in power until toppled by the Indonesian Revolution of 1998[1].

The document

One version of the document

The Supersemar itself is a simple document of less than 200 words. It reads as follows:

PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

ORDER

I. Considering
1.1 The current state of the Revolution, together with the national and international political situation
1.2 The Order of the Day of the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces/President/Supreme Commander of the Revolution dated 8 March 1966

II. Taking into account
2.1 The need for calm and stability of the Government and the progress of the Revolution
2.2 The need for a guarantee of integrity of the Great Leader of the Revolution, [the Armed Forces] and the People to preserve the leadership and obligations of the President/Supreme Commander/Supreme Commander of the Revolution and his teachings

III. Decides/Orders
LIEUTENANT GENERAL SOEHARTO, MINISTER/ARMY COMMANDER
To: In the name of the President/Supreme Commander/Great Leader of the Revolution
1. Take all measures deemed necessary to guarantee security and calm as well as the stability of the progress of the Revolution, as well as to guarantee the personal safety and authority of the leadership of the President/Supreme Commander/Great Leader of the Revolution/holder of the Mandate of the [Provisional People's Consultative Assembly] for the sake of the integrity of the Nation and State of the Republic of Indonesia, and to resolutely implement all the teachings of the Great leader of the Revolution.
2. Coordinate the execution of orders with the commanders of the other forces to the best of his ability.
3. Report all actions related to duties and responsibilities as stated above.

IV. Ends

Djakarta, 11 March 1966

PRESIDENT/SUPREME COMMANDER/GREAT LEADER OF THE REVOLUTION/HOLDER OF THE MANDATE OF THE [PROVISIONAL PEOPLE'S CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY]

[signed]

SUKARNO

 

 Controversy

The circumstances surrounding the signing of the Supersemar
Indonesians usually end documents with the place the document was signed and the date. Given that the Supersemar was supposedly signed in Bogor, it is odd that the Supersemar is signed "Djakarta". In his account of the events of March 1966, Hanafi, a close friend of Sukarno and ambassador to Cuba says that he went to Bogor on March 12 and met with Sukarno. He says that Sukarno told him Suharto had sent three generals with a document they had already prepared for him to sign. He says that Sukarno felt he had to sign it because he was in a tight spot, but that the generals had promised to defend Sukarno and that the order would not be misused.[3] However, Martoidjojo, the commander of the presidential bodyguard, who went with Sukarno in the helicopter to Bogor, says that the Supersemar was typed in Bogor by Sukarno's adjutant and military secretary, Brig. Gen. Mochammed Sabur.[4] Djamaluddin corroborates this.[5]

The wording of the Supersemar itself could be read as a threat, namely the section reading "to guarantee the personal safety and authority of the leadership of Sukarno. However, in 1998, accusations appeared [6] of an even more direct threat, namely that two members of the presidential guard had seen Gen. M. Jusuf and Gen M. Panggabean, second assistant to the Army minister, pointing their pistols at Sukarno. M. Jusuf and others have denied this, and that Panggabean was even present. They called into doubt the credibility of key parts of the accusations, and said it was impossible for the two men to be so close to the president at the time.

The disappearance of the original
One of the most obvious oddities regarding the Supersemar is that the original document can no longer be traced. Although Indonesia was in a fairly chaotic state at the time, it is surprising that more care was not taken to preserve a document that school history books cite as the legitimization of Suharto's ensuing actions. After all, the original document of the Indonesian Declaration of Independence is still preserved.

The existence of multiple versions
Signatures of Sukarno on the four versions

One of the publications to appear since the fall of Suharto alleges that there were several versions of the Supersemar (Center for Information Analysis 1999). Even before the fall of Suharto, an official publication commemorating 30 years of Indonesian independence reproduced one version of Supersemar, while an officially sanctioned high school history textbook featured a different version. [2][7]

There are a number of differences between the various versions of the Supersemar:

* In two versions, there is a missing plural marker after the word "force" (Angkatan) in section III, paragraph 2
* In the same two versions, there is an extra definite article marker after the word "responsibilities" (tanggung-djawab") in section III paragraph 3
* One version runs to two pages, whereas the other versions are all on the one page.
* Sukarno's signature in one version lacks the dot-and-horizontal-line after the word "Soekarno".
* There are also minor differences in the proximity and shapes of the letters. [8]

The Order of March 13
According to Hanafi, in his discussions with Sukarno at the Bogor Palace on March 12, Sukarno was angry that the Supersemar had been used to ban the PKI, as it was the prerogative of the president to ban political parties. He said he had asked Third Deputy Prime Minister Johannes Leimena to take a written order to Suharto, and that he would wait to see what Suharto's reaction was – whether he would obey it or not. He asked Hanafi to help Third Deputy Prime Minister Chaerul Saleh and First Deputy Prime Minister Subandrio The two men showed Hanafi the "Order of March 13", which stated that the Order of March 11 was technical and administrative in nature, not political, warned General Suharto that he was not to take any actions outside the scope of the order and asked Suharto to report to the president at the palace. Saleh planned to make copies of the order and distribute them to loyal members of the palace guard and to Sukarno's young followers. Hanafi says 5,000 copies were made, and that he took a few back to Jakarta with him, but he does not know what happened to the others.[3]

In the official biography of Suharto, also say that Sukarno questioned Suharto's use of the Supersemar and sent Leimena to ask Suharto to take responsibility for his actions.[9] Saelan, deputy commander of the presidential guard says Suharto ignored the order[10], and Hanafi says that Suharto sent a message back via Leimena, who returned to Bogor later that evening, saying he would take responsibility for his actions, and that he was unable to come to Bogor as he was due to attend a meeting of all the military commanders at 11am the following day, to which he invited Sukarno. Incidentally, Hanafi is ambiguous as to the dates in his account, as he says he was in Bogor on March 12, but the "correction" to the Supersemar was known as the Order of March 13.[3]