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 PRESIDENT SUKARNO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Presidency
1945-1967

Revolution 
1945-1949

Permesta 
1958

 Gestapu
1965

Supersemar
1966-1967

 

 

 EARLY YEARS

 

 

US Relations 

CIA in Indonesia

 DIPLOMACY 

NSA documents

UK Relations

 

  

 

 

 


Introduction

Profile

Diplomacy

Development

Sukarno years

Suharto years

Overview

Government

US relations

Economy

1965 Gestapu

 World Bank/IMF

History

Current Affairs

New Beginning

Business

Silent Genocide

Globalization

 

 SPECIAL REPORTS

Global Rulers

  Rule By Secrecy

 US Relations 60s-98

Suharto Obit

Corruption

East Timor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 PRESIDENT SUKARNO
1945 - 1967

FOUNDER AND FIRST PRESIDENT
REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

 

 

PAGE 1

PAGE 2

 

 

 

Sukarno Years



President Sukarno

 

 

Editor aims at compiling a true record of his presidency
His political aspirations and ambitions have often been
distorted and blackened to suit Western interpretations.

He fought Western domination but in the end tragically succumbed to their political pressures, intrigues and
machinations as well as biased Western media reporting

 

 

 

 

 

The First Years of Independence

 

The Sukarno website

a documentary,

aims to depict

the remarkable story of the Sukarno years,

his fight for independence, Dutch imprisonment and exile

the Western efforts to draw him into their power circle

their failure to do so

and his ultimate downfall

www.sukarnoyears.com

www.sukarno-years.net

 

 

Vice President Mohammed Hatta
1945 - 1956

Mohammad Hatta (born August 12, 1902, Bukittinggi, Sumatra,
Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia); was Indonesia's first vice president,

In Aug., 1945, Hatta and Sukarno joined in proclaiming the birth of
the independent Republic of Indonesia.

He died March 14, 1980 in Jakarta.

 

 

 

 

 

11/07/2012
INDONESIA

Independence leaders Sukarno and Hatta become 'national heroes'
by Mathias Hariyadi

After 67 years, the two leaders were recognised today at the presidential palace. Different in personality but united in their desire to achieve independence for the nation, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta promoted and defended the secular character of the state. However, one of the darkest pages in the history of modern Indonesia hangs over the first president, who died under house arrest.

 

Djoko Suyanto, Coordinating Minister for Legal, Political and Security Affairs, yesterday welcomed President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, back from a mission to Great Britain and Laos, where he took part in this year's Asia-Europe Meeting.
During the welcome ceremony, Minister Suyanto with the president's approval announced that the government had decided to grant the first two leaders of independent Indonesia the title of fathers of the nation.

Sukarno, father of former President Megawati Sukarnoputri, was born in 1901 in a Javanese-Balinese family. He died in 1970 after spending his last years under house arrest with limited contacts with the outside world, including his family in the wake of one of the most controversial decisions taken by his successor, General Suharto.
A Muslim, Sukarno had studied civil engineering. He had a strong and flamboyant personality and was a good speaker as well as a notorious Don Juan, as evinced by the women in his life, including many wives.

Like the president, Vice President Mohammed Hatta was a Muslim. Born in West Sumatra, he graduated in economics from a Dutch university. Unlike his leader, he always took a low profile. He was not talkative but was smart and had a sharp mind.
Both were patriots and nationalist. Although devout Muslims, they both were in favour of a secular state, which was reflected in the first draft of the nation's constitution, the Jakarta Charter (Ind. Piagam Jakarta).
Their view was shared by Christian nationalist leaders, including Catholics, from the eastern provinces of the country, who also played an important role in formulating the country's basic values and drafting its founding charter.

However, 50 years ago in 1965 one of the darkest pages in the history of modern Indonesia unfolded when a number of generals accused of planning to overthrow President Sukarno were arrested and executed .
Their failed coup stemmed from Sukarno's increasing megalomania and despotism as well as his growing sympathy for Communist movements and states like the Soviet Union, mainland China and North Korea, adversaries of the United States during the Cold War.

On 30 October 1965, President Sukarno had seven army generals executed by his loyal followers and members of the Indonesia Communist Party (PKI).
A few months later, general Suharto overthrew Sukarno's government and took over the government, becoming the new president in 1967.
The new regime carried out a bloody crackdown against Communists, killing some two million Communists and leftwing supporters between 1967 and 1971. He also consolidated Indonesia's alliance with the United States.

Some historians believe that the current government's decision to grant Sukarno and Hatta the title of "national heroes', which as some well-informed sources suggest could be extended to General Suharto, is part of a strategy to put to rest old animosities and divisions and boost national unity.

However, why former President Abdurrahman Wahid, popularly known as Gus Dur and a friend of the country's Christians, has not been equally recognised as 'national hero' is unclear.
Even though no one has taken such a step, the late president is someone who clearly deserves it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sukarno, Hatta Officially Named National Heroes
By webadmin on 2:24 pm November 7, 2012.

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, Indonesia’s founding fathers, were officially recognized as national heroes during a ceremony at the presidential palace in Jakarta on Wednesday morning.

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pinned medals on Sukarno’s eldest son, Guntur Sukarnoputra, and Hatta’s daughter, Meutia Hatta, who represented the two honorees during a ceremony that lasted for half an hour.
“Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were two sons of the nation whose ideas and thoughts have become foundations for the nation,” Yudhoyono said in a speech after he issued the medals.

Although both Sukarno and Hatta have always been recognized as the founding fathers of Indonesia, they were never conferred with the title of national heroes, mostly because past political elites deemed the two had historical baggage.
Sukarno was accused of leaning toward the far-left during his time in power and granting political advantages for the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and its leaders.

A 1967 decree of the Provisional People’s Consultative Assembly (MPRS) that stripped Sukarno of his presidential post claimed that “there have been indications that President Sukarno has adopted a policy that indirectly benefits the G-30-s/PKI movement and protects the key figures [of the movement].”

However, former Constitutional Court chief Jimly Asshiddiqie argued that the PKI scandals had clouded Sukarno and Hatta’s legacy as founders of the nation and proposed in July that the two should be named national heroes.
The Title and Honor Council finally accepted the proposal, although the chief, Djoko Suyanto, refused to explain why.
“The [award medals] will be handed over to the families of Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta,” Djoko, also the coordinating minister for political, legal and security affairs, told kompas.com shortly before the ceremony.

The ceremony is part of the celebration of Indonesia’s Heroes Day, celebrated every Nov. 10.
Sukarno’s eldest daughter and fifth president of Indonesia, Megawati Sukarnoputri, was seen in attendance. She has hardly stepped foot in the presidential palace since Yudhoyono, a former coordinating minister for political, legal and security affairs in her cabinet, assumed the presidency in 2004.

Antara, JG

 

Independence Proclamation Republic of Indonesia
August 17, 1945

On August 17, 1945, the Indonesian national leaders
Ir. Sukarno and Drs. Mohammad Hatta proclaimed
the independent Republic of lndonesia.

 

 

 A

Fierce Nationalist, A Gifted Orator

 Presidency

Sukarno brought independence to Indonesia, instilled self-confidence in the people, fought to wipe out the inferiority complex imposed by the Dutch colonial attitude, expanded educational opportunities, erased the stigma of being a 3rd class citizen in their own country, created employment opportunities other than the low-level jobs that had been their colonial destiny - babu, djongos, koelie - lowly servants to their colonial masters.

 

 


Mohammad Hatta on foreign policy:

"Mendayung Antara Dua Karang,"
This statement was an indication of the policy
Indonesia would take in international relations,
which later became known as
"mendayung antara dua karang"
(Rowing between two reefs).

Rowing between Two Reefs (USA and USSR)

"Do we, Indonesians, in the struggle for the freedom of our people and our country, only have to choose between Russia and America? Is there not any other stand that we can take in the pursuit of our ideals?"

"The Government is of the firm opinion that the best policy to adopt is one which does not make us the object of an international conflict.
On the contrary, we must remain the subject who reserves the right to decide our own destiny and fight for our own goal, which is independence for the whole of Indonesia."

 

 

Sukarno a fierce nationalist, a forefighter of neutralism rejecting both political and economic imperialism
who refused to become a Western political ally.

Leader of Non-Alignment Movement

Diplomacy

"Let this Asian-African Conference be a great success!
Make the "Live and let live" principle and the "Unity in Diversity" motto the unifying force which brings us all together-to seek in friendly, uninhibited discussion, ways and means by which each of us can live his own life, and let others live their own lives, in their own way, in harmony, and in peace"

 

 

The conference was attended by
delegates from 29 Asian and African countries.

AA Conference in Bandung
April 1955


President Sukarno of Indonesia
delivered his opening speech titled
“Let a New Asia and New Africa Be Born”

Opening Speech

 

 

PRRI Permesta

In 1957, President Eisenhower, his secretary of state,
John Foster Dulles, and the CIA--unbeknownst to Congress
or to the American public--launched a massive covert military operation in Indonesia to topple President Sukarno.

President Eisenhower and CIA chief Allen Dulles were concerned that the success of Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in winning fourth-place in the 1955 elections (most of these votes came from Java) might be precursor of Indonesia becoming a communist state.

The US operation was a tragic failure, another example of
US interference in a government not willing to side with their
Cold War ambitions,

 

 

Britain keeps lid on MI6 role in ousting Sukarno


The Cabinet Office is refusing to declassify documents
which would give an insight into the UK's secret involvement
in Indonesian politics in the 1960s

 

 


CIA - NSA documents

A supposedly secret State Department history, released July 27, 2001 by a private research group, discloses new details of United States policy during the 1965 campaign by the Indonesian Army to wipe out the Communist opposition in Indonesia.

The CIA, as well as action officers at the State Department, have prevented the official release of either volume, already printed and bound by the Government Printing Office.

 

 


Gestapu - the downfall of Sukarno

A socalled abortive coup on Sept. 30, 1965.
Suharto used the plot as a pretext for mounting a
large-scale attack on the Communist Party and
unseating Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno.

The circumstances surrounding the abortive coup d'état
of September 30, 1965--an event that led to Sukarno's displacement from power; a bloody purge of PKI members
on Java, Bali, and elsewhere; and the rise of Suharto as architect of the New Order regime--remain shrouded in
mystery and controversy.

 

 

SUPERSEMAR
Treacherous end of a Presidency

On March 11, 1966, Sukarno signed an executive order (Supersemar) that (reportedly) transferred all his power to Suharto. The Supersemar document is surrounded by mystery as the original has never been made available.
Suharto placed Sukarno under house arrest where he died on June, 21 1970.

The primary significance of the Supersemar is that it was apparently misinterpreted and used by Soeharto as the basis for the establishment of what he called "The New Order" to replace the "Old Order" under Sukarno.

There are multiple versions in circulation.
The original document has not been found, reportedly kept
by Suharto.

 

 


End of an Era

Sukarno died on June 21, 1970.
He was laid to rest in Blitar, East Java

Modern Indonesia came into being under Sukarno’s leadership and vision. The politics of the region and of the century were influenced by him. And he was leader of one of the world’s most populous countries for over two decades.

Quoted from:
J. D. Legge’s Sukarno – A Political Biography

 

SURRENDERING TO SYMBOLS


A History of
official US policy toward Indonesia
1961-1965

US policy towards Indonesia in the vital years 1961-1965,
a period which defined the cold war power balance in Southeast Asia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soekarno the great president of indonesia

 

 

President Sukarno was a Founder of the Republic of Indonesia
and became its First President.

He instilled national pride in the people, united a nation with one common language, widely expanded educational opportunitiesand placed the country on the world map. He became a prominent and respected leader of the Asian and African countries and their political aspirations of freedom from imperialism, thereby becoming a thorn in the eye of western countries unwilling to release their political and economic hold on the "Third World".

Official historic records have not been kind to him, many important documents have been destroyed after his presidency. His political aspirations have often been distorted and blackened to suit Western ambitions. He fought Western domination but in the end succumbed to their political pressures, intrigues and machinations.
Western media contributed much to blackening of his image through biased reports.

 

 

President Sukarno

President Suharto

 

In the first fifty years of independence Indonesia was led by 2 powerful presidents:
Sukarno (1945-1967) and Suharto (1967-1998) in a world dominated by the Cold War.
They laid the foundation for the nation's political and economic development.

 

Sukarno a fierce nationalist, a forefighter of neutralism rejecting both political and economic imperialism, refused to become a Western political ally. Western intrigues brought him down in 1965.

 

Suharto, his successor, was a staunch US ally and allowed a western corporate takeover of the country's economic development. Under his reign Indonesia became closely aligned with western interests and was rewarded with aid and investment to foster rapid economic growth,
The aid and investment were granted with specific interests of the donor countries in mind thereby turning Indonesia's economy into a slave of Western interests.

 

 Modern Indonesia came into being under Sukarno’s leadership and vision.
The politics of the region and of the century were influenced by him.
And he was leader of one of the world’s most populous countries for over two decades.

Sukarno-A Political Biography

 

 

1955 AA conference

 

 

 

 

The Sukarno years are filled with stories of the nation's struggle for independence, domestic and international achievements, triumphs, defeats and tragedies. The cold war struggle impacted the early years of independence as western nations did not hesitate to resort to pressure, manipulative and treacherous actions to make Sukarno bow down to their demand that he become a Western ally, side with them, the all-powerful West. His refusal to do so and insistence on neutralism , a leader of the non-alignment movement, resulted in unabated treacherous western actions, led by the US and the UK to bring him down as president, falsely proclaiming him a communist because of his stand for nationalism and neutralism.
A thorn in their eyes, they finally succeeded in 1967 with his removal and replacement by General Suharto, a staunch
"Cold War Ally".

US Policy was aimed at protecting their own anti-communist interests in the Cold War. Indonesia with its abundance of natural resources and strategic location, was considered important for the Western effort in their fight against communism and thus was designated to become a western ally.

Under his successor General Suharto, Indonesia became closely aligned with western interests during the cold war and was rewarded with aid and investment to foster rapid economic growth , aid and investment granted with specific interest of
the donor countries in mind. Indonesia's economy became a slave of Western interests.

The western press and media were not objective observers. Their reports were biased towards the west, criticizing Sukarno whenever possible even to the extent of helping create a distorted picture. Their biased reporting was based on the western viewpoint and mostly ignored the ambitions, traditions, philosophies, way of thinking and feelings of the Indonesian people at large. Anything that did not conform to their own standards was wrong.
Their powerful distribution channels very much helped to create a distorted picture of Sukarno, playing down his strengths and achievements, heavily emphasizing his personal weaknesses.
They supported their government actions, blindsided the public, critized their target and mostly were too arrogant to apologise or even issue corrections when their arguments proved to be wrong.
Sukarno was a president brought down by western powers and their media channels.

 

US Relations

Politically the Sukarno Presidency , unfortunately, became part of the Cold War conflict. US Policy was aimed at protecting their own anti-communist interests in the Cold War. Indonesia with its abundance of natural resources and strategic location, was considered important for the Western effort in their fight against communism and thus was designated to become a western ally.
Sukarno's neutralism placed him on the wrong side of the US government. US policies were and still are dominated
by the principle that you are either pro or anti the US and that it is the obligation of the US to bring you to the
right side - the US side - no middle way, no neutralism accepted. If diplomatic persuasion fails other methods will
be applied. Sukarno's independent stand resulted in unabated US sponsored Western bloc treacherous efforts to
create his downfall. This was finally accomplished after the 1965 Gestapu affair.

They gained a staunch supporter in General Suharto thereby securing a stronghold of influence in Southeast Asia.

 

 

 

 

INDONESIA
POLITICAL BOOKS SELECTION

 

 

 

A Fierce Nationalist and Gifted Orator

 

Indonesia - How the West has won
A suitable title for a story of how the West, led by the US and United Kingdom, brought Sukarno down and happily worked with a successor who was more receptive to their demands. This website aims to depict the remarkable story of the Sukarno years, his fight for independence leading to years of Dutch imprisonment and exile, the Western efforts to draw him into their power circle, their failure to do so, and his ultimate downfall.
"Indonesia - How the West has won" would be an appropriate title for this intriguing and treacherous development of events in the Sukarno years. CIA plots and cover-ups, UK secret black propaganda and covert actions to discredit and de-throne President Sukarno. Covert operations, high-level intrigue after intrigue aimed at removing Sukarno, a thorn in their eyes because of his stand for neutralism.

It reads like a story. However, we are not talking fiction but deplorable facts.
Indonesia - How the West has won is a black mark in Indonesia's and international history.
The sad part of this is that although the Sukarno chapter is closed, the story has not ended with his departure from the scene. The West extended their political victory with economic greed causing long lasting negative effects on Indonesia, morally, ethically and economically.

 

Gestapu - The 30 September 1965 movement

The events of October 1, 1965, in Indonesia and their origin may truly be called "a riddle wrapped in an enigma."
There is no consensus among students of Indonesia about the "correct" explanation. All existing theories have their articulate and plausible critics. Probably the majority of careful Indonesian scholars have abandoned the search for explanation.
GESTAPU is an enormously complicated puzzle in which the pieces never fit together, their shape constantly changes, and new pieces keep appearing.

Indonesia 1965 -
Indonesia gained independence from the Netherlands in December of 1949, and their leader Achmad Sukarno quickly came to be a major thorn in the side of the Anglo-American Establishment. He became an outspoken enemy of Imperialism and one of the most important Third World leaders forging an independent path between the Soviet bloc and the Anglo-American Imperial faction.

In 1955 he convened the Conference of Asian and African Nations in Bandung, Indonesia. It became known as the Bandung Conference, and it led to the creation of the Nonaligned Movement in 1961. Sukarno, Nehru (India), Nasser
(Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana (who the Establishment will get to next), were all founding members of this Third World organization that unsuccessfully tried to create a new international economic order.

However, the power and wealth of the Anglo-American faction was too great, and Indonesia was steadily pushed into submission. The article "A Brief History of the International Financial Institutions in Indonesia," describes how Sukarno put up a strong fight.

 

 

OVERVIEW

In the first fifty years of independence Indonesia was led by 2 powerful presidents.The first two president of Indonesia Sukarno (1945-1967) and Suharto (1967-1998) led the country in a world dominated by Western powers and their allies fighting Sovjet communism in the cold war.

Sukarno a fierce nationalist, a forefighter of neutralism rejecting both political and economic imperialism and refused to become a Western political ally.

Suharto, his successor, was a staunch US ally and allowed a western corporate takeover of the country's economic development.
Under his reign Indonesia became closely aligned with western interests and was rewarded with aid and investment to foster rapid economic growth , aid and investment granted with specific interest of the donor countries in mind. Indonesia's economy became a slave of Western interests.


Sukarno, the First President of Indonesia, founded an independent country after 350 years of Dutch colonization which suppressed nationalist aspirations, racially restricted education and treated the people ("inlanders") as third class citizens in their own country.

Politically the Sukarno Presidency , unfortunately, became part of the Cold War conflict. US Policy was aimed at protecting their own anti-communist interests in the Cold War. Indonesia with its abundance of natural resources and strategic location, was considered important for the Western effort in their fight against communism and thus was designated to become a western ally.

Concerned about Sukarno's political direction and the powerful Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), President Eisenhower ordered the CIA to foment a coup in 1958.
The coup failed, but its planning linked the CIA and Pentagon with
Suharto and other Indonesian
military officers who saw an opening to power
.

 

 


Sukarno's neutralism placed him on the wrong side of the US government. US policies were and still are dominated by the principle that you are either pro or anti the US and that it is the obligation of the US to bring you to the right side - the US side - no middle way, no neutralism accepted.
If diplomatic persuasion fails other methods will be applied. Sukarno's independent stand resulted in unabated US sponsored Western bloc treacherous efforts to bring him down. This was finally accomplished after the 1965 Gestapu affair.

In his book Sukarno-A Political Biography, J. D. Legge reminds us of his achievements.
Modern Indonesia came into being under Sukarno’s leadership and vision. The politics of the region
and of the century were influenced by him. And he was leader of one of the world’s most populous countries for over two decades.

 

 

 

J

 JANGAN MENINGGALKAN SEJARAH

 

 

 

 

 

 

IN MEMORIAM

 A Memorial Tribute

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Indonesia Digest

 Global Digest

 

 

 

 

 

 

This website has been created with intensive use of internet research, linking information as available
on the internet, and various publications and books. I have attempted to give due credit to the sources.
My apologies for the ones I may have missed. I will make corrections as required
.
Editor