looks to build its own warships
Wahyoe Boediwardhana, The Jakarta Post, Surabaya | Wed, 03/23/2011
Come sail away: Naval cadets line up next to Indonesia’s Banda Aceh warship
in Surabaya on Monday. Indonesia is looking to build its own warships,
including submarines.JP/Wahyoe Boediwardhana
The Indonesian government is looking into the possibility of building its own warships in order to strengthen
the country’s defense systems and reduce its dependence on other countries for warships.
Next month, state-owned shipbuilding company PT PAL, in cooperation with Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding of the
Netherlands, will begin designing light corvettes — ships designed for anti-submarine warfare — for the Indonesian
Navy in anticipation of their construction in the country. The warships will be the largest ever produced by a
local shipbuilding firm.
The government has also given the green light for the building of a submarine beginning in 2014. The sub will be
built after the Indonesian government selects the specifications, the type of submarine it desires and which countries
will be chosen to transfer the technology to Indonesia.
So far four countries — France, Russia, Germany and South Korea – have emerged as contenders, but the government
has not made a decision about which country will be chosen to build the initial sub.
Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro discussed the government’s plans at a ceremony for the handover of a domestically
made warship — the KRI Banda Aceh 593 — to the Navy in Surabaya, East Java, on Monday.
“The government has decided to build its own submarine. But building a submarine cannot be done hastily because
its technology is complicated. We are still designing it, what kind of submarine and what is suitable for Indonesian
waters,” Yusgiantoro said.
Indonesian Military (TNI) Chief Adm. Agus Suhartono said at the ceremony that Indonesia’s waters were distinctive
as its western seas were shallow and the east had deep waters, therefore choosing a suitable submarine was essential.
Agus said the initial submarine would be built in the country that possessed the right technology. “The second,
the third and the following submarines will be built here and at the same time will be accompanied by a transfer
of technology,” Agus said.
PT PAL president Harsusanto said his company was ready to build the submarines and the corvette warships as
long as it was given a chance to learn.
“The proof is the Banda Aceh warship. We turned out to be able to build warships by ourselves. If we can do this,
we will also be able to produce others,” he said.
PT PAL strives to use local products for defense items built domestically so as to save money.
The government promised to continuously renew all TNI defense equipment in stages by the year 2024.
Out of the country’s four LPD warships, each with a capacity of 507 personnel, ordered from Daewoo International,
two were built in Indonesia by PT PAL and two in South Korea. The ships were US$15.4 million each.
The 125-meter long warships were specially designed to accommodate a 100mm cannon launcher and equipped with a
combat information center for its main weapons control system.
The ships are capable of traveling for 30 days and can contain two landing craft carriers, tank carriers, combat
vehicles, tactical vehicles, troop carriers and five helicopters.
Indonesia - The Navy
The Navy of the Republic of Indonesia (ALRI) became a separate service in 1946, after the National Revolution
began. It was initially stocked primarily with craft once operated by European or the Australian navies. Beginning
in 1959, the navy began to acquire a large number of craft from the Soviet Union and East European nations. In
the aftermath of the abortive 1965 coup, however, the navy suffered a decline in influence within the armed forces
and the nation because of suspected involvement in the coup attempt (particularly by the marine corps) and because
of its small size in comparison with the army. A large portion of its vessels of Soviet or East European origin
were quickly rendered non-operational owing to a lack of spare parts and maintenance expertise. Until the late
1970s, the only major replacements were four frigates acquired from the United States Navy in 1974.
More US military incursions
The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Fri, 07/18/2003 4:54 PM
JAKARTA: The Indonesian Navy spotted a convoy of seven foreign warships in the Natuna Sea, Riau, the Navy said
in a media release on Thursday.
""The convoy was spotted by the KRI Teuku Umar of the Western Indonesian Fleet at about 6 a.m. on Wednesday
and tried to establish communication with the convoy,"" commander of the Western Indonesian Fleet, Rear
Adm. Mualimin Santoso MZ said in the release.
""The convoy, however, did not respond.""
Maj. Abdul Rasyid, who commands the KRI Teuku Umar, decided to monitor and track the convoy until about 8:15 a.m.
at a distance of 2 miles before the convoy sailed away from Indonesian waters.
Observations revealed that the convoy was conducting a joint training session in international waters after analyzing
its formation and maneuvers. The convoy consisted of five Singaporean and two U.S. warships.
The Singaporean ships were corvettes RSS Valiant and RSS Vigour and fast attack craft RSS Sea Wolf. Two other ships
were not identified.
KRI Teuku Umar could only identify one US Navy ship, cruiser USS Vincennes with another ship unidentified.
deal, US woes may plague RI
The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Thu, 08/04/2011
The US narrowly escaped an economic meltdown on Tuesday as the US Senate passed a belt-tightening bill for President
Barack Obama’s signature, clearing the way for the nation to raise its debt ceiling.
“The world is breathing a collective sigh of relief that the US didn’t default on their payments,” Dewi Fortuna
Anwar, Vice President’s Boediono’s special advisor on foreign affairs, said on Thursday.
However, the consensus reached in Washington does not mean the rest of the world is clear of the future effects
of the US’ troubled condition.
Indonesia and the US, for instance, had a combined trade valued at US$23 billion in 2010.
“Indonesia is very dependant on the US since it is the world’s largest economy. If they are facing hardships at
home, the rest of the world will be affected,” Dewi said.
Despite Asia’s rapidly growing economic influence, according to Dewi, nations in the region have been unable to
insulate themselves from economic crises in other parts of the world.
Experts agree that the US might increase its focus on domestic issues in the face of its economic turmoil – to
the potential detriment of its foreign relations and foreign aid recipients.
“The US is in a crisis of capitalism and needs to reinvest its money in its own country rather than investing in
other countries,” Mahmud Syaltout
Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan
Laut (TNI AL)
Indonesian Armed Forces - Sea Force
The Indonesian Navy was established on 22 August 1945 following the Indonesian Proclamation of Independence. It
was formed as the Agency of the People's Security Sea Service (Badan Keamanan Rakyat-Laut or BKR), with only wooden
ships, a few landing craft and weapons left by Japan. The BKR was developed by the alumni of the Sekolah Pelayaran
Tinggi (Maritime College) and the Dutch Naval Academy (Koninjklijk Institut de Marine). Following the establishment
of the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI) on 5 October 1945, BKR became known as Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia (ALRI).
The name ALRI was used until 1970, when it was changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL).
During the period of the independence war of 1945-1949, ALRI, with a minimum of forces, was able to conduct
sea expeditions to various areas out of Java to establish naval bases, marine forces, and naval training schools.
Apart from establishing naval forces out of Java, the objective of the expeditions was to expand the spirit of
the proclamation, and increase exposure among other countries by breaking through naval blockades to obtain weapons,
ammunition and medical supplies. These naval operations succeeded in encouraging resistance against the Dutch and
establishing armed forces in Bali, South Kalimantan, and South Sulawesi.
With the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Dutch under the Round Table Agreement on 2 November 1949,
ALRI had the opportunity to consolidate its forces as a modern navy. This was followed by the delivery of ex-Koninklijke
Marine (KM) ships, including corvettes and destroyers. On 5 December 1959, ALRI established a fleet to organise,
operate and increase weapon materiel. The establishment of the fleet was a milestone for the development of ALRI.
The national and global situation at the beginning of the 1980s gave new impetus to the development of TNI-AL and
the promulgation of the Indonesian EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) brought with it new challenges and demands. The
small, effective and efficient force was required to develop into a professional, effective and modern navy. In
order to conduct its primary role as a naval force, TNI-AL initiated a development and management program, including
the maintenance of forces through an integrated fleet weapons system (SSAT). The elements of SSAT are ships, as
a basic weapon system, aircraft, the Marine Corps and naval bases. The SSAT is a combination of strategic weapons
with logistic support reflecting a strong navy.
The minimum maritime capability to ensure national security is sea denial. Based on that capability, modernisation
was achieved through the procurement of modern, high technology naval ships from a variety of countries, including
Holland (Fatahilah class corvettes, ' Van Spijk' frigates, and Tripartite class minehunters), Yugoslavia (destroyer
escort training ship KRI Kihajar Dewantara-364; Korea, 'Patrol Ship Killer-Missiles' (PSK) and Tacoma class landing
ship tank), the United Kingdom (ex-Tribal class) and Germany (209 class submarine). The national shipyard, PT PAL,
also produced FPB-57 class patrol boats for TNI-AL.
Structurally, the navy comprised the headquarters staff at Jakarta under the overall command of the navy chief
of staff, two fleet commands (the Eastern Fleet in Surabaya, the Western Fleet in Jakarta), the marine corps, a
small air arm, and a military sealift command. The vast majority of operational ships were stationed at the main
naval base at Surabaya, Jawa Timur Province. There were about 44,000 uniformed personnel serving in the navy in
1992, including about 13,000 marines. The marines were organized into two brigades, one in Jakarta and the other
in Surabaya, and were equipped with light tanks, armored personnel carriers, and antiaircraft guns. Some of the
marine elements were believed occasionally to be attached to KOSTRAD in operational missions.
The 1985 reorganization of the military made significant changes in the former territorial commands of the navy,
which were eliminated from the structure altogether, with the service represented on the KODAM staff by a senior
liaison officer. The navy territorial commands were replaced by Eastern Fleet and Western Fleet--Armadas. The Navy
fleets split the Western Fleet corresponding to KODAMs I through IV and VI and with the Eastern Fleet corresponding
to KODAM V and KODAMs VII through IX.
The navy has maintained a small air arm since 1958. Headquartered at Surabaya, its personnel numbered some 1,000
in the early 1990s. It was equipped primarily for naval reconnaissance and coastal patrol duties, flying three
squadrons of light airplanes, as well as several transports and helicopters.
Naval aviation was supplemented with Nomads (N-22) from Australia, Wasp ASW helicopters from the UK, and products
of IPTN such as Cassa, Super Puma and BO-105. The Marine Corps also received amphibious vehicles from France. More
recently, TNI-AL obtained 39 ex-East German naval ships. In order to enhance the capability of logistic support,
maintenance and administration for the unit operation, TNI-AL established five main bases with several subordinate
bases, a maintenance facility, and a naval aviation base.
The military sealift command coordinated the navy's logistical support systems.
The Indonesian government established an independent body, the Indonesia Sea and Coast Guard (KLKP) in 2009. The
establishment is based on Law No 17/2008 and aims to strengthen security in Indonesian waters. Transportation Minister
Jusman Syafii Djamal said that the roles of the Indonesia Maritime Security Coordinating Board will be combined
with the KLKP in the coming year. Indonesia also established a Sea Transportation Director General to better comprehend
and communicate with the Indonesian military.
The naval shipyard--P.T. PAL--was turned over to the civilian government, but it, along with other facilities in
Surabaya, continued to be the navy's primary training, repair, and industrial center. Since P.T. PAL's transfer
to civilian control and designation as a state enterprise, it developed and implemented improvements for a management
and technical upgrade of the shipyard to support the Indonesian fleet as well as to conduct commercial repairs
for foreign navies. Small craft construction facilities were located at shipyards in Jakarta, Manokwari, Irian
Jaya Province; Semarang, Jawa Tengah Province; and Ambon, Maluku Province.
Indonesia Marine Corps (Korps
Marinir - KorMar)
The Indonesian National Armed Forces comprises approximately 430,000 personnel including the Army, Navy (including
the Indonesian Marine Corps - Korps Marinir TNI AL), and the Air Force. The Indonesian Army is by far the largest,
with about 330,000 active-duty personnel, compared to around 75,000 in the Navy and 35,000 in the Air Force. The
Indonesian armed forces are entirely voluntary. The Indonesian Marine Corps is administratively supported by the
navy but operationally controlled by the chief of the armed forces. The Commander of Marine Corps is a two star
Major General (Marine). The corps is equipped with tanks, armored fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers,
towed howitzers, multiple rocket launchers, and air defense guns.
As of 2010 the Marine had around 17,000 personnel, this condition making a joke in Indonesian military circles
that, with the number of island in Indonesia also around 17,000 [making this country as the largest archipelago
in the world], every Marine soldier must guarding one island in Indonesia. Kormar has the nickname as Sea Ghost,
and wears a distinctive purple beret. This color comes from the Javanese legend that the regent of southern sea
always uses purple color for dress.
Formed on 15 November 15, 1945, the corps is the main force in amphibious combat operations and, defensively, is
the quick reaction forces in emergency situation to defend the beach fronts from enemy invasion. The Marine Corps
(Kormar) are the Indonesian Navy's ground troops. The Marine Corps is one of the Indonesian Navy's main commands,
equally with Eastern fleet, Western fleet, Navy Academy, Navy School of Command and Cross Sea Military Command.Officially,
the Marine combat area is around 8 km from the beach because that's the main area for amphibious landed operations.
If the marines needed to conduct operations further incland, its must be under the jurisdiction of the land task
During the period of confrontation [1963-65], the Indonesian naval capability increased in quality and quantity.
The Marine Corps was reinforced by armoured and amphibious vehicles. In the aftermath of the abortive 1965 coup,
however, the navy suffered a decline in influence within the armed forces and the nation because of suspected involvement
in the coup attempt (particularly by the marine corps) and because of its small size in comparison with the army.
During the 1960s Kormar used KKO-AL (Navy Commando Unit) as their corps name but in 1975, KKO went back to using
Marine Corps as their name. In 1991 the Corps was reported to number over 12,000 marines (organized into 2 infantry
brigades of 6 battalions each), one administrative regiment, one combat support regiment, and one training regiment.By
1992 13,000 marines were organized into two brigades, one in Jakarta and the other in Surabaya, and were equipped
with light tanks, armored personnel carriers, and antiaircraft guns. Some of the marine elements were believed
occasionally to be attached to KOSTRAD in operational missions. The Marine Corps subsequently received amphibious
vehicles from France.
By some accounts, in 1999 a plan was proposed to expand the Kormar from its strength of 13,000 troops. As of 2002
the Indonesian Marine Corps had approximately 15,000 personnel formed into Marine Headquarters, one division, one
brigade, one training command, one anti terrorist detachment, two marine base commands, one marine hospital, six
naval base defense battalions. In addition to increasing the number of weapons it already has, the Indonesian Navy
also strengthened its marine corps' force by establishing the 8th and 9th Marine Infantry Battalions, the Marine
3rd Infantry Brigade and the 2nd Marine Troop.
In 2005 a plan was proposed to expand the Kormar from the existing strength of 17,000 personnel [some accounts
relate that this plan was first proposed in 1999]. Based on this plan, by 2025 every Marine Division would have
three combat brigades: the Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery, and would be supported by one Combat Support Regiment
and one Administration Support Regiment. The expansion would create three Marine divisions: Surabaya for Eastern
area command, Jakarta for Central area command, and Rate Island in Lampung for Western area command. Kormar also
would have 2 independent marine brigades, 1 marine training command, 5 marine bases and 11 marine battalion for
navy base defense. The expansion would increase the strength of Kormar to 70,000 personnel by 2025.
As of 2010 the Indonesian Marine Corps had an reported 20,000 troops [less "authoritative" sources report
as many as 29,000 troops]. They are organized in two Marine Forces (PASMAR), or Marine Corps Groups, based in Surabay
and Jakarta, each with three battalions, and one independent marine infantry regiment, with three batallions in
Teluk, Rata and Sumatra. Other units include a Special Forces battalion, and an artillery regiment.
The Battalion Intai Amfibi (Taifib), formerly known as the Kompi Intai Para Amphibi (KIPAM), was formed on 18 March
1961 as marine commandos. The battalion was first used in the Irian Jaya in April 1962. Starting from November
1971 it was called Batalyon Intai Amphibi (Yon Taifib) or Amphibious Recon Battalion. All troops are two year veterans
of the KOMAR who volunteer for the seven month commando training course. The training at the KIPAM training facility
at Surabaya includes a month long airborne training course. Battalions are stationed in Jakarta and Surabaya Marine
In addition to increasing the number of weapons it already has, the Indonesian Navy has also strengthened its marine
corps' force by establishing the 8th and 9th Marine Infantry Battalions, the Marine 3rd Infantry Brigade and the
2nd Marine Troop. As of 2010 the Marine corps had 417 armored vehicle, but some 307 of the armored vehicle were
over 30 years of age, 37 vehicles between 21-30 years and only 71 is a new vehicle between 1-10 years. A total
of 35 Russian-made BMP-3F amphibious infantry fighting vehicles were deployed by the Indonesian Marines in 2010.
These had been proposed to be ordered in late 2008, alongside a $1-billion loan package from Russia which was to
include Mil helicopters and two Kilo-class submarines.
On July 10, 2008 U.S. District Judge Catherine C. Blake sentenced Erick Wotulo, age 61, a citizen of the Republic
of Indonesia, and a retired Indonesian Marine Corps General, to 30 months in prison followed by three years of
supervised release for conspiracy to provide material support to a designated foreign terrorist organization and
money laundering. According to the plea agreement, beginning in April 2006 Wotulo conspired with Haji Subandi,
Haniffa Bin Osman and Thirunavukarasu Varatharasa to export state-of-the-art firearms, machine guns and ammunition,
surface to air missiles, night vision goggles and other military weapons to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(Tamil Tigers) operating within Sri Lanka, to be used to fight against Sri Lankan government forces. The conspirators
contacted an undercover business located in Maryland about the sale of military weapons. Wotulo and Subandi aided
in the acquisition and proposed delivery of military technology to the Tamil Tigers, requesting price quotes, negotiating
the purchases, and providing details of ocean routes for the transfer of the arms to the Tamil Tigers.
Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan
Laut (TNI AL)
Indonesian Armed Forces - Sea Force
The Indonesian Navy was established on 22 August 1945 following the Indonesian Proclamation of Independence.
It was formed as the Agency of the People's Security Sea Service (Badan Keamanan Rakyat-Laut or BKR), with only
wooden ships, a few landing craft and weapons left by Japan. The BKR was developed by the alumni of the Sekolah
Pelayaran Tinggi (Maritime College) and the Dutch Naval Academy (Koninjklijk Institut de Marine). Following the
establishment of the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI) on 5 October 1945, BKR became known as Angkatan Laut Republik
Indonesia (ALRI). The name ALRI was used until 1970, when it was changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan
During the period of the independence war of 1945-1949, ALRI, with a minimum of forces, was able to conduct sea
expeditions to various areas out of Java to establish naval bases, marine forces, and naval training schools. Apart
from establishing naval forces out of Java, the objective of the expeditions was to expand the spirit of the proclamation,
and increase exposure among other countries by breaking through naval blockades to obtain weapons, ammunition and
medical supplies. These naval operations succeeded in encouraging resistance against the Dutch and establishing
armed forces in Bali, South Kalimantan, and South Sulawesi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The role of the Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, TNI–AL) is to patrol of
Indonesia's immense coastline, to ensure safeguard the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), to
protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounded Indonesia and to defend against
seaborne threats. The TNI AL is the largest navies in the region of South East Asia. It currently aims to become
the most technologically advanced navies in the region.
All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI (in Indonesian, Kapal Perang Republik Indonesia), which
means War Ship. The Indonesian Navy personnel at the moment has about 74,000 active personnels and more than 150
naval warships including attack submarines.
The Indonesian Navy was formed on August 22, 1945. It was formed as the Agency of the People’s Security
Sea Service (Badan Keamanan Rakyat-Laut). Later on October 5, 1945, BKR Laut became known as Angkatan Laut Republik
Indonesia (ALRI). This was later changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL) in the 1970.
Personnels of the Indonesian Navy is estimated at 74,000 in 2008. The Indonesian Navy purchased a number of ships
of the former ex Parchim, Frosch and Kondor Class from former East German Navy in the 1990s. Navy vessels include
KRI Cobra and others. In 2006, Indonesian Navy purchased 2 shipset Yakhont missiles and 20 BMP-3F amphibious light
tanks with option of 100 more BMP-3 from Russia. Indonesia also plans to buy landing craft ships from Russia.
The Indonesian Navy is modernizing the fleet. New corvettes ordered from Netherlands are being added. The Navy
also plans to induct 60 patrol vessels within a decade to maintain adequate force level while replacing obsolete
ships in service. This will help in the fight against sea piracy and other maritime crime.
The navy comprises the following:
* Headquarters Staff (HQ, Jakarta) under the overall command of the Navy Chief of Staff,
* Two Fleet Commands :
o Eastern Fleet Command, in Surabaya, conterminous with Army's KODAM V and KODAMs VII through IX and Air Force's
Operation Command II.
o Western Fleet Command, in Jakarta, conterminous with Army's KODAMs I through IV and VI and Air Force's Operation
* Several Naval Main Bases and Naval Bases throughout Indonesia. Apart from the major bases at Surabaya and Jakarta,
forward operating bases exist at Kupang, West Timor and Tahuna, Sulawesi.
* Marine Corps,
* Naval Air Service,
* Military Sealift Command - coordinates the navy's logistical support systems.
Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central).
Indonesian Navy Special Forces
* Komando Pasukan Katak - the primary special operations force of the Indonesian Navy. They are recruited from
navy sailors, and they are commonly called as "FROG MAN".
* Kompi Intai Para Amfibi - the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, which also has capability as
para-commando. They are recruited from marines corps.
* Detasemen Jala Mangkara - special operations forces of the Indonesian Navy. It is a combined detachment formed
from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance
Battalion (KIPAM aka Yontaifib).
Ships of the Indonesian Navy
See also: Current Indonesian Navy ships
The majority of the vessels in the Indonesian navy are from The Netherlands and Britain. However, since
2003, Indonesian shipyards produce many of their own small vessels, in particular those of smaller displacement
like patrol boats and fast attack crafts. Recently, two Makassar class LPDs have been launched by PT. PAL, with
assistance from Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co.(DSME) of South Korea, and there are a plans to
build indigenous missile-armed corvettes (Kornas).
In 1960 Indonesian Navy Naval Aviation had the capability to long strike. In 1960, Indonesian Navy had IL-28
long strike medium bombers. In 1975-79, the Dinas Penerbangan Angkatan Laut (Naval Aviation Service) received 12
GAF Nomad Searchmaster B's and six Searchmaster L twin-turboprops to form a maritime patrol Squadron (800 Skwadron).
In mid 1996 six NC.212-MPAs also join the squadron. All aircraft fly from the Naval headquarters base of Surabaya,
but detachments are at times sent to Tanjung pinang and Manado.
 Current Aircraft Inventory
The Korps Marinir are the Indonesian Navy's
ground troops. It was created on November 15, 1945 and has the duties of being the main amphibious warfare force
and quick reaction force of defence against enemy invasion.
n 2009 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono alocated 70billion rupiah for built indonesian hellicopter carrier,
built by PT. PAL - Indonesia
Ideally Indonesia Ocean Force should has 250 ships and it has in blue print up to 2024.
In April 2011, PT PAL, in cooperation with Netherlands' Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light corvette
for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL.
At the same time, Indonesian Navy has accepted a grant of 2 used patrol boats equipped with guided missiles made
in Britain from Brunei after upgrading itself with newer vessels. 
April 2011: The State-owned Bank Mandiri finances constructions of two 40-meter fast missile boats (Kapal Cepat
Rudal - KCR-40s), worth Rp.65,97 billion (about $7.65 million). It is to be designed and built solely locally.
The KCR-40s will operate in Indonesia's western waters which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided
June 2011: After disqualifying the Russian submarine offering, due to the fact of being too big for an archipelagic
country, Indonesia will pick one of three countries offering: French Scorpene, Germany U-209 and South Korea similar
class with U-209.
July 2011: Indonesia will build 2 submarines initial at 2012. One will be built in joint production country and
one again in PT PAL, Surabaya.
Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems
With various coast-line radars, Indonesia has become the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems
(IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometers of coast line in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometers
of coast line in the Sulawesi Sea
Indonesian Naval Aviation
The Dinas Penerbangan Angkatan Laut, or Indonesian Naval Aviation Service was activated on June 17, 1956, as
Dinas Penerbangan ALRI (Naval Aviation Service), and renamed Dinas Penerbangan TNI-AL or DISNERBAL, in early 1974.
The first aircraft to enter service in numbers were eighteen Gannet AS-4/T-5s bought in the UK in 1957. They were
purchased for the ASW role as an alternative for the S-2F Tracker, which the US refused to sell due to the political
situation at the time. In August 1957, the first six students arrived in the UK to start their pilot training at
RAF Oakington (Vampire) and the Fairey factory at White Waltham (Gannet). The first two aircraft arrived with Skwadron
Udara (SkwU) 100 in 1960, and were based at the former MLD base Morokrembangan, Surabaya.
In July 1962, ALRI relocated six Gannets from SkwU.100, and two UF-2s from Flight Udara 300 to Liang airbase, Ambon,
in order to cover the sea north of Sulawesi during the conflict over Dutch New Guinea. Two Gannets remained at
Morokrembangan for pilot training. In August 1962, the aircraft had moved to Morotai, preparing for the invasion
of Dutch New Guinea. Late August 1962, after the conflict had come to a peaceful end, they returned to Liang via
Mapengat, Manado, while one Gannet fatally crashed near Ambon. Soon afterwards, the unit returned to its home base.
During the Confrontation with Malaysia from 1964 until 1966, Gannets of SkwU.100 were based at Tanjung Pinang,
Riau, and also flew from Denpasar, Bali. As the UK was a participant in the conflict, the flow of spare parts was
immediately stopped, and the ALRI had to resort to cannibalism to keep the Gannets operational. Within a few years,
the Gannets were grounded and withdrawn from use. By 1965, as the Confrontation was at its peak, the ALRI had taken
delivery of its first Eastern Bloc aircraft. A total of fifteen Mi-4 helicopters (nine ASW and Maritime Patrol-,
five General Purpose- and a single VIP model) for SkwU.400 were delivered from late 1963. The ALRI was also to
receive the TU-16KS, but tactical airpower was deemed more important, so ten Il-28T torpedo bombers and two Il-28U
trainers entered service with SkwU.500. These second hand former Soviet aircraft were delivered including 59 RAT-52
torpedoes, and based at the new Juanda naval air station south of Surabaya, where the first flight took place in
April 1965. That same year ALRI also received fourteen Beagles from the AURI, but these were never used due to
their age. SkwU.600 was activated in 1965, and operated the C-47. The first Alouette 2 helicopters arrived with
SkwU.400 from France in 1964. In late 1965, the ALRI Order of Battle looked like this:
Skwadron Udara 100 Gannet AS4/T5 Morokrembangan, Surabaya
Flight Udara 300 UF-2 Morokrembangan, Surabaya
Skwadron Udara 400 Mi-4, SA318C Juanda, Surabaya
Skwadron Udara 500 IL-28T/U Juanda, Surabaya
Skwadron Udara 600 C-47 Juanda?, Surabaya
Flight Markas Grand Commander 689F Juanda, Surabaya
Following the October 1965 Coup, the Il-28s soon became unserviceable, and were grounded in 1967 (or 1970, but
some reports say the Il-28 was still operational in 1972!). Several trainers, communications and VIP aircraft also
served with DISNERBAL, allocated to SkwU.200. An Aero Commander 680FLP was received in October 1967 (and a Grand
Commander 500?). In October 1968, four DC-100 Lark Commanders arrived and joined SkwU.400 (by 1978), but were later
transferred to SkwU.200. This unit also received the F-33A Bonanza, ordered in August 1986, and the TB-9 Tampico.
A new Maritime Patrol unit formed in 1975 is SkwU.800, receiving twelve GAF N-22Bs from December 1975 at Juanda.
Six more advanced GAF N-22SL models supplemented them from June 1981.
On October 16, 1975, the town of Balibo in East Timor fell into Indonesian hands, and five Australian journalists
were killed. As a protest, Australia postponed the GAF Nomad delivery. From September until November 1977, a new
TNI offensive in East Timor saw the first use of Nomads on offensive surveillance missions. SkwU.600 received the
first of ten IPTN NC212M-200s in March 1984, but continued to operate the surviving DC-3s on a limited scale until
at least late 1993. The Mi-4s had been withdrawn from use in 1972, and had not yet been replaced. In December 1977,
the IPTN NBo105CB revived SkwU.400, six being delivered. Four years later, in April 1981, it resumed its ASW role
with the arrival of the Wasp HAS-1, and ten former Dutch Navy (MLD) examples entered service at Juanda. The unit
continued to expand, and the first of four Exocet equipped IPTN NAS332F Super Pumas arrived in December 1984, followed
by six IPTN NB412Ss from March 1989.
On March 8, 1996, the Chief-of-Staff of the Naval Aviation Service announced the planned purchase of the IPTN CN235-MPA
(Maritime Patrol), NC212 (Light Transport) and GAF Nomad (Tactical Maritime Patrol). From the original batch of
eighteen GAF N22B/SL Nomads delivered, only nine remained operational by January 1997 and a contract worth AUS$2
million for twenty second-hand Nomads was signed in November 1996. The first seven ex Royal Australian Army GAF
N22Bs arrived at Juanda after their ferry flight via Darwin, Kupang and Sumbawa Besar in January 1997. The deliveries
were completed by August 8, 1997, when the twenty aircraft were handed over to SkwU.800 in a ceremony at Juanda.
Four additional Nomads (two N22-MPAs and two N24-MPAs) were purchased in 2001, probably in Australia.
Late 1994, program On Top II was to have added three NC212s, three NC212-MPAs and three NBo105s to the service's
strength and after some delay a contract with IPTN was confirmed in June 1996. The NC212-MPAs replaced the old
Nomads with SkwU800, and are equipped for maritime patrol and surveillance operations with Thomson-CSF AMASCOS
(Airborne Maritime Situation Control System) avionics, Ocean Master Surveillance Radar, CHLIO FLIR and Sextant
Avionique systems. The three Basic Military NC212s were delivered by 2003 and the first NC212M-200 PATMAR (MPA)
was delivered on May 12, 2005. Delivery of the NBo105s, fitted with similar equipment less the CHLIO system, may
have started in early 2000. A veteran that entered service was the DHC-5 Buffalo. Two ex-UAE Airforce aircraft
were overhauled by IPTN at Bandung, and the first one was delivered to SkwU.600 on July 4, 1997. They replaced
the C-47. On June 17, 1998, the three remaining airworthy Wasps were finally grounded. An additional IPTN NB412
was delivered in March 1997.
In January 2001, Kadisnerbal (Chief of Naval Aviation) Laksma TNI Yayun Riyanto announced that the TNI-AL had decided
to buy two Mil Mi-17 and eight (later changed to sixteen) new Mi-2 light transport helicopters. A contract for
the Mi-2s was signed in March 2003, and two were subsequently delivered to SkwU.400. Ten would be based at Juanda,
Surabaya, and six in Jakarta. Further deliveries by PLC Rostov Mil were however blocked because of the high price
and the fact that the helicopters were second hand! Also, PZL-Swidnik SA could deliver new Mi-2s for less money.
The TNI-AL took delivery of three Eurocopter EC-120B Colibri training helicopters from September 2001, and assigned
them to SkwU.200. On February 14, 2005 three EADS Socata TB-9 GTs and two TB-10 GTs entered service with SkwU.200.
In July 2005, seven PZL-Mielec M28B-1RI maritime patrol Skytrucks and three M28B-1TDI light transport Skytrucks
were ordered with deliveries to start in late 2005. However, this order was cancelled.