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President Obama in Jakarta
November 9-10, 2010














A Country Study: Indonesia





 Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1949.

Diplomatic relations were established on December 28, 1949,
when U.S. Ambassador H. Merle Cochran presented his credentials to President Sukarno.
Ambassador Cochran had previously been the U.S. representative to the United Nations Commission for Indonesia.




Embassy of the United States - Jakarta



Chiefs of Mission for Indonesia

Horace Merle Cochran (1949-1953)

Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (1986-1989)

Hugh Smith Cumming (1953-1957)

John Cameron Monjo (1989-1992)

John Moore Allison (1957-1958)

Robert Louis Barry (1992-1995)

Howard Palfrey Jones (1958-1965)

J. Stapleton Roy (1995-1999)

Marshall Green (1965-1969)

Robert S. Gelbard (1999-2001)

Francis Joseph Galbraith (1969-1974)

Ralph Leo Boyce (2001-2004)

David Dunlap Newsom (1973-1977)

B. Lynn Pascoe (2004-)

Edward E. Masters (1977-1981)

Cameron R. Hume (2007-2010)

John Herbert Holdridge (1982-1986)

Scot Alan Marciel (2010-July 18, 2013)


Robert Blake (January 30, 2014




Bilateral Relations
Brief History

Relations between Indonesia and the United States had been established long before Indonesian Proclamation of Independence in 1945. The diplomatic relations between the two, however, were officially marked by the opening of an Embassy in each of the two countries. The United States opened its Embassy in Jakarta on 28 December 1949 and appointed Horace Merle Cocrhan as the first US Ambassador to Indonesia, whereas Indonesia appointed Dr. Ali Sastroamidjojo as the first Indonesian Embassy to the United States on 20 February 1950.

Cooperation in Political Sector
Watershed in the bilateral relations between Indonesia and the US was marked by President Barack Obama’s visit to Indonesia on 9-10 November 2010 in which the President of both countries officially launched the Indonesia-US Comprehensive Partnership (CP). Before the launching, bilateral relations between the two had been implemented through the first Indonesia-United States Joint Commission Meeting (JCM) in Washington, D.C. on 17 September 2010 which was moderated by Foreign Minister of both countries. The JCM I agreed to launch a Plan of Action for Indonesia-US Comprehensive Partnership which would be the blueprint for cooperation guidelines between the two countries as well as forming six Working Group (WG) in Democracy and Civil Society Climate and Environment; Education; Trade and Investment; Security Issue; and Energy. On the next Joint Commission Meeting (JMC) II in Nusa Dua, Bali on 24 July 2011, both Foreign Ministers declared a Joint Statement on the development of future strategic vision for Indonesia-US cooperation and discussed various cooperation potentials as well as regional issues.

Cooperation in Defense and Security Sector
Post relieving the military embargo in 2005, defense cooperation between Indonesia and the US had been improving, owing to the positive perception from the US government, military and parliament towards the reform in Indonesian National Army. US military aids to Indonesia were channeled through the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program and International Military Education and Training (IMET) program with particular purposes of enhancing transport capability of the Indonesian National Army in disaster mitigation as well as improving professionalism.

Indonesia and the United States had been organizing annual military meetings since 2002. The meetings included the Indonesia-United States Security Dialog (IUSSD) and the United States-Indonesia Bilateral Defense Dialog (USIBDD) which interspersed with the IUSSD.
The 11th USIBDD meeting was held in Hawaii, the United States on 7-11 February 2011, whereas the 8th IUSSD was held on 25-26 May 2010.

The Indonesian-United States defense cooperation was then cemented through signing a Letter of Intent (LoI) on Mutual Cooperation in Capacity Building and Combating Transnational Crimes in March 2011 which founded the cooperation between the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Indonesian National Police (Special Detachment 88) in eradicating terrorism. In addition, on 8 November 2010 both countries had signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Capacity Building to Strengthen the Security of Biological Pathogens which founded the cooperation in capacity building training in the field of bio-security and bio-safety between the Government of the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia in order to fortify the safety of laboratories and pathogens against any illegal access.

Cooperation in Trade, Investment and Tourism Sector
The United Sates is the 4th Indonesia’s biggest trading partner after Japan, China and Singapore with a trade value reaching US$ 23 billion in 2010. The number increased by 31.96% compared to the US$ 17.93 billion in 2009. It resulted in a surplus of US$ 4.86 billion for Indonesia in 2010 or an increase of 29.3% compared to the US$ 3.76 billion in 2009. Indonesia’s export to the US reached a value of US$ 14.26 billion or increased by 31.49% compared to the US$ 10.85 billion in 2009. Indonesia’s main export commodities to the United States comprise natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle and similar natural gums, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip (HS 4001); women’s or girls suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (HS 6204); jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, knitted or crocheted (6110); other furniture and parts thereof (HS 2709); footwear, upper of leather (9403); crustaceans, whether in shell or not (HS 0306); men’s suit, jackets, trousers etc & shorts (6203); women’s blouses & shirts (HS 8525); television camera, transmission app for radio-telephony (HS 6403); and men’s shirts (HS 6206).

Period: 2006 – 2011 (in thousands of US$)
Source: Ministry of Finance

The US investment in Indonesia reached a value of US$ 930.8 million in 2010 or increased by 542.7% compared to the US$ 171.5 million in 2009. The amount placed the United States as the 3rd biggest investor in Indonesia after Singapore and Britain. For the period of January-March 2011, the investment value stood at US$ 359.1 million which afforded the country as the 2nd biggest investor in Indonesia after Singapore.

The Ministerial Trade Investment Council (TIC) was established in order to enhance trade and investment relations between Indonesia and the United States. The forum worked on discussing and solving various issues related to the trade and investment between both countries. The TIC consisted of four Working Groups (WG), i.e. WG on Industrial and Agricultural Products; WG on Illegal Logging and Associated Trade; WG on Intellectual Property Rights; and WG on Investment.

Meanwhile, in order to assure the US investment in Indonesia, the Head of Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board and the Acting President of OPIC signed the Indonesia-US Investment Support Agreement-Overseas Private Investment Corporation (ISA-OPIC) on 14 April 2010 in Washington, D.C. The agreement then was ratified through the Presidential Regulation No. 48 Year 2010 issued on 19 July 2010, and it was expected to spark more interest from the US investors to invest in Indonesia.

Related to the tourism sector, in total of 171.528 US tourists visited Indonesia in 2010 entering through Indonesia’s 19 main gates. The number also meant an increase of 5.68% in total number of visitors compared to the 162.302 people in 2009.

Cooperation in Development Sector
Indonesia had been receiving the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) grant from the United States since 2006 with a total amount of US$ 55 million in order to fund immunization and anti-corruption programs inside the country. In December 2008 Indonesia was once again chosen to receive similar grant through the scheme of MCC Compact Program (MCC CP) for the period of 2008-2013. The MCC CP comprised the following programs: e-procurement, education and health as well as natural resources management/REDD+.

In addition, the Government of Indonesia and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) had agreed on a USAID grant which would be given through the scheme of a Strategic Plan which covers five programs, i.e. education, government and democracy, economic development, health and environment for the period of 2009-2014. Implementation of the grant was then reinforced by signing an Assistance Agreement (AA).

The Government of Indonesia also signed another USAID grant agreement on 24 September 2010. This time, the agreement constituted a grant of US$ 65.358.000 from the World Bank (as coordinator) to the National Program for Community Empowerment (NPCE) in Villages through the scheme of NPCE Support Facility Trust Fund.

Another USAID grant with an amount of US$ 371.3 million was received by Indonesia in order to assist the post-tsunami recovery and reconstruction process in Aceh. It was drafted in the Strategic Objective Grant Agreement (SOAG) to Support Tsunami Recovery and Reconstruction which was jointly signed by the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency and the USAID on 7 July 2005. It had helped funding the construction of 100km-long Banda Aceh-Calang main road as well as the development of FKIP Unsiyah.

Cooperation in Energy Sector
The cooperation between Indonesia and the United States in energy sector was marked by the organizing of Indonesia-US Energy Policy Dialog (EPD) II in Jakarta on 20-21 October 2008. The meeting covered discussion on the cooperation plan to develop renewable technology, the development of geothermal technology through the International Partnership for Geothermal Technology (IPGT), the information exchange concerning investment policy as well as capacity building. Meanwhile, the EPD III in Washington D.C. on 28-30 June 2010 addressed the issues of national energy policy, energy source development and utilization, research and development on capacity building, unconventional gas, methane to market and Human Resource development.

Indonesia-US cooperation in energy sector was greatly supported by the US Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) by granting US$ 1.6 million to fund the development of geothermal plan 370 MW in Halmahera and 300 MW in West Java.

Cooperation in Environmental Sector
Indonesia-US cooperation in environment sector was marked by the signing of the Debt for Nature Swap-Tropical Forest Conservation Act which worth of US$ 19.6 million on 30 June 2009 in Sumatera. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia and the United States planned to establish a Climate Change Center as an effort to mitigate the impact of climate change in Indonesia. The Center would operate for 2 year period starting on 1 July 2010. The US Government would fund the initial operational expenses which would be spent mainly on reducing emission from peat lands and forests.

Cooperation in Food Security
The Indonesia-United States Agricultural Technology and Investment Forum was organized in Jakarta on 6-7 October 2010 as a part of the Plan of Action to implement the Indonesia-US Comprehensive Partnership, particularly in food security. The forum then agreed that there needed to be a greater participation from Public Private Partnership which involved academicians in order to attain food security. Therefore, any policy and action would be decided based on credible research and study.

Cooperation in Marine Sector
Cooperation between Indonesia-United States in marine sector was founded on an MoU between the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) which was drafted on 18 September 2007 and the Implementation Arrangement of the respective MoU which was signed on 10 June 2010. As a follow up, Indonesia and the United States agreed on a joint exploration using NOAA’s expedition ship, “OKEANOS EXPLORER”. In addition to the joint exploration, the two also agreed to cooperate on a sustainable fisheries management, the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) and the Maritime Partnership Program.

Cooperation in Education, Peace Corps, Science and Technology and Interfaith Dialog
Cooperation in education between Indonesia and the United States began in 1952 through the granting of Fulbright Scholarship which in its development later on was organized by the American Indonesian Exchange Foundation (AMINEF). An MoU between Indonesia and the US on AMINEF signed on 16 February 2009 regulated the technical procedure of granting the Fulbright scholarship through the mechanism of tuition waiver or remission as well as living expenses coverage while the grantee attending US higher education institutions. In addition, the Education and Training Center of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and AMINEF signed a cooperation agreement on capacity building of Indonesian diplomats on 17 December 2009.

Cooperation in education between the two was also implemented through the USINDO by signing an MoU on Educational, Social and Cultural Cooperation on 15 May 2006. The USINDO provided opportunities for Indonesian diplomats to enroll in US education institutions and also sent volunteers to teach at English language programs in Indonesia.

Meanwhile, the signing of an MoU on Peace Corps by Indonesia and the United States on 11 December 2009 marked another cooperation between the two. A number of US volunteers were sent in March 2010 to give training to English teachers in public schools and Madrasah (Islamic school) in East Java province as the implementation of the MoU. Judging from the positive result gained by the program, the United States would increase the total number of volunteers to 33 people in 2011 and 50 people in 2012 as well as decided to expand the program outside of East Java province.

In response to the US President Barack Obama’s speech at Al-Azhar University, Cairo on 4 June 2009 proposing a fight against negative stereotype towards Islam, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono promptly declared the Government of Indonesia’s commitment to bridge the Islamic world and the West during his speech at Harvard University on 29 September 2009. From that point forward, the two countries agreed to unite all the related parties in the region in an Interfaith Dialog between Indonesia and the United States which was held on 25-27 January 2010. The meeting resulted in a number of cooperation pointers which were later drafted in the Shared Concerns and Commitments Indonesia-US Interfaith Cooperation. As a follow up action, the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs then arranged academicians, religious figures and society figures to give public lectures on Democracy and Moderate Islam in Indonesia at several US universities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco) on 8-12 November 2010.

A cooperation agreement in Science and Technology was signed by both countries in Jakarta on 29 March 2010. It renewed the similar agreement which had expired in 2002. The agreement constituted an MTA (Material Transfer Agreement) and verses on the protection of Intellectual Property Rights of GRTK (Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge). As an implementation of the agreement, Dr. Bruce Alberts (US Science Envoy) visited Indonesia with the missions of identifying cooperation potentials in research and technology and forming a Joint Work Group in Education.

The US Embassy also participated in encouraging understanding and friendship among Indonesian and American youth by opening a US cultural center, @america, in the 3rd Floor of Pacific Place Mall, Jakarta on 6 December 2010. @america become the only US cultural center in the world where visitors would be able to watch various advance multimedia and interactive broadcast about the American way of life.








A U.S.–Indonesia Partnership for 2020



A U.S.- Indonesia Partnership for 2020
Recommendations for Forging a 21st Century Relationship

Executive Summary

The U.S.- Indonesia relationship is critical to the national interests of both nations, and will only grow more so in the years
to come. The catch words are now well-known.
Indonesia is the world’s fourth largest country and third largest democracy. It is the largestMuslim- majority nation, one of
the most pluralistic societies on the planet. Its political system provides proof that democratic norms and values are not dependent on culture, history, or religion.

President Barack Obama spent part of his childhood in Indonesia and his administration has recognized the nation’s importance in the “Asian century.” During a visit to Indonesia in 2010, he and President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono sought to institutionalize a new era in U.S.- Indonesia cooperation with the announcement of a bilateral comprehensive partnership. Since then Washington has made it clear that Jakarta is central to the U.S. rebalance, formerly called the pivot, toward the Asia Pacific, both in its own right and as a leader in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Despite the compelling case for Indonesia-U.S. cooperation, the relationship’s strategic importance remains undervalued in Washington, where the Asia Pacific focus is too often focused on Northeast Asia at the expense of the rest of the region.
For their part, many policymakers in Jakarta recognize the need for good relations with Washington, but many others continue to view the U.S. relationship with ambivalence.

Recognizing the need to elevate the U.S.-Indonesia relationship to the next level, the CSIS Sumitro Chair for Southeast Asia Studies launched a project to identify ways to boost cooperation both within and beyond the structure of the comprehensive partnership. The result is this report, which was informed by interviews and research in both Indonesia and the United States

The greatest asset of the U.S.- Indonesia comprehensive partnership is its recognition that a 21st century friendship between nations cannot be based on security or economic cooperation alone. Instead, it must focus on three pillars of the relationship:
political and security cooperation, trade and economic relations, and sociocultural and science/technol-ogy collaboration.
This report seeks to promote ties across the same spectrum

Political and security relations have traditionally been the glue that binds U.S.- Indonesia cooperation.
An uneasy security collaboration emerged during the Cold War due to both countries’ concerns about communist threats.
With the fall of the Soviet Union, ties grew strained during the 1990s, but were reinvigorated in large part through counterter-rorism collaboration in the 2000s.

Thanks to the efforts of the George W. Bush and the Obama administrations, political and security linkages are stronger than ever. But neither country can afford to stop seeking means of further improvement. Opportunities for greater political and security cooperation abound, including in regional, global, and third-country efforts that remain underutilized.

Economic relations have been the thorniest aspect of the U.S.-Indonesia partnership.
Indonesia’s colonization by a rapacious corporation, its irregular tradition of nationalization, and the perceived aloofness of Washington during the 1997–1998 economic crisis are just some of the legacies that make close U.S.- Indonesia trade and investment ties difficult.
But economic cooperation is key to a closer partnership. Despite the difficulties, the benefits to businesses on both sides of the Pacific make concerted effort necessary for progress worth it.
Government initiatives have an indispensable role to play in creating a more supportive environment for closer trade and investment ties. At the end of the day, it is U.S.and Indonesian businesses that need to steer the economic partnership to the next level,
aware of but not hamstrung by the difficulties involved.

The third pillar of the bilateral relationship is the most underutilized: the broad category of cultural, people to people, educational, environmental, and scientific/technological collaboration. The idea of making cooperation central to a state-to-state relationship is
relatively novel, but its importance cannot be overstated.

Security and economic relations are crucial, but it is these other areas of cooperation that provide the glue for a sustained
long-term partnership. Efforts such as student exchanges, climate change mitigation, and medical collaboration often offer more value for the cost than any political- or economic-focused aid program. They can build cultural and normative bridges, create cadres of citizens with a lifelong understanding of their international counterparts, and generate invaluable goodwill while improving the quality of human lives.

The aim of this report is not to include every possible suggestion to improve the U.S.- Indonesia partnership. Political and
budgetary constraints in both Washington and Jakarta are recognized. Recommendations that are both the most useful and most practicable are offered.

Difficulties facing some aspects of the relationship are recognized with improvements or workarounds suggested. If there is one message fundamental to this report, it is that Jakarta and Washington cannot afford to put their relationship on autopilot following
the successes of the last few years. If the United States and Indonesia are not seeking to innovate and improve their partnership, then they are letting it stagnate





Secretary Kerry Leads Delegation to Indonesian Presidential Inauguration
October 21, 2014

JAKARTA – On October 20, Secretary of State John Kerry led a Presidential Delegation to Jakarta, Indonesia to attend President Joko Widodo’s inauguration.
Members of the delegation included U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Robert Blake, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Daniel Russel, Director of the Peace Corps Carolyn Hessler-Radelet, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs and Former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Scot Marciel, and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Education for International and Foreign Language Education Mohamed Abdel-Kader.

While in Jakarta, Secretary Kerry attended the inauguration at the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) on the morning
of October 20.

He also had a series of bilateral meetings with leaders from around the globe including Prime Minister Najib of Malaysia, Prime Minister Abbott of Australia, Prime Minister Loong of Singapore, and Foreign Secretary del Rosario of the Philippines

In the evening, he met with President Widodo at the Merdeka Palace and conveyed President Obama’s regards and congratulations on the occasion of his inauguration. Secretary Kerry and President Widodo discussed a wide range of issues in the bilateral relationship, with a particular focus on ways to continue the strong partnership that exists between the United States and Indonesia.







U.S. John Kerry meets new Indonesian President Joko Widodo

Monday, October 20, 2014 - 00:28

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets new Indonesian President
in an effort to strengthen ties with the world's largest Muslim country.

Indonesian President Joko Widodo met the United States Secretary of State John Kerry during his first day in office on Monday (October 20). U.S. officials said Kerry's discussions in Jakarta would cover ways to block Islamic State's recruitment of fighters from Southeast Asia, preventing the return of hardened fighters to the region, and blocking militant financing. A U.S. official said Kerry would urge Widodo to do more to freeze the assets of militants in line with U.N. Financial Action Task Force requirements. As the leader of world's largest Muslim country, Kerry will urge Widodo to maintain the active role in regional foreign policy pursued by the previous Indonesian administration, amid concern that the new president may be more inward-looking given his preoccupation with domestic agendas.











The White House
Office of the Press Secretary

President Obama Announces Presidential Delegation to attend the Inauguration
of His Excellency Joko Widodo, President-elect of the Republic of Indonesia

President Barack Obama today announced the designation of a Presidential Delegation to Jakarta, Indonesia to attend the Inauguration of His Excellency Joko Widodo, President-elect of the Republic of Indonesia on October 20, 2014.

The Honorable John F. Kerry, Secretary of State, will lead the delegation.

Members of the Presidential Delegation:

The Honorable Robert O. Blake, Jr., U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia, Department of State
The Honorable Daniel R. Russel, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
The Honorable Carolyn Hessler-Radelet, Director of the Peace Corps
The Honorable Scot Marciel, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs and Former U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia
Mr. Mohamed Abdel-Kader, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Education for International and Foreign Language Education








Aug 12 2014

Washington, D.C. ­– U.S. Senator John McCain (R-AZ) delivered the following statement today during a Town Hall at the @america public diplomacy center in Jakarta, Indonesia.

“I am Senator John McCain of Arizona, and I am pleased to be joined by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island. We have traveled to Indonesia together because we believe this is an important time for this country—indeed, a time of historic political transition—and for our Comprehensive Partnership as well.

“I am a Republican, he a Democrat, and this is our first time in Indonesia. And we believe this demonstrates how more and more Americans, and members of our Congress, are coming to understand and respect the growing importance of this country. We see in Indonesia a model of freedom and tolerance, an indispensable player in the global economy and environment, and an emerging world leader with which our country shares strategic interests, democratic values, and a clear stake in maintaining a rules-based order and a favorable balance of power in the Asia-Pacific region. In short, we believe Indonesia can and should be one of America’s most important partners in the 21st century.

“Much of the credit for this goes to President SBY, who we met this morning. The Indonesian people should be proud of the tremendous success their country has achieved under President SBY’s leadership—success that was displayed so vibrantly through the recent election. Our hope is that, under the leadership of President-elect Jokowi, Indonesia will grow stronger and more prosperous, that our partnership will grow closer and more durable, and that Indonesia will do even more to serve as an active force for good, both in Asia and the world. We want President-elect Jokowi to succeed, because we want Indonesia to succeed.

“If we could leave you with only one thought, it is this: We see Indonesia, and we encourage Indonesia to see itself, as not only a member of ASEAN, but also as a great economy and an emerging power capable of strategic action, a leading stakeholder in the worldwide community of democracies, and a source of hope and inspiration for a world that is in desperate need of both.

“It is on this basis that we hope to develop an ambitious strategic agenda to take our partnership to new heights—to expand trade and investment, further education and development, protect our environment, enhance and fully normalize our military relationship, strengthen peace and security in this vital part of the world, and promote our shared values of democracy and human rights.

“At a time of growing global upheaval and extremism, Indonesia and the United States have so much to offer the world—the example of two diverse peoples spread across vast lands and waters, who have committed to resolving our differences peacefully and democratically, and in so doing, creating unity from diversity, or one from many, as our national mottos similarly proclaim.

“What other nations on earth could produce Jokowi and Barack Obama as their leaders? Only in Indonesia and America is that possible.

“The process of democracy in both of our nations can be messy and raucous, and at times it has led some to count our countries out. Indeed, 15 years ago, serious people thought Indonesia would break apart. And today, we hear it said yet again that America's best days are behind it. Well, no one has made much money betting against Indonesia and America before, and it is a bad idea to start now.

“Our example can inspire the world, but we cannot assume that the world will simply become better on its own. It will not. We must make it so. We must act together to make the world better—not perfect, but better. That mission is what has brought us to Indonesia, and we hope it will guide our partnership now and always.”

John McCain: ISIS Organisasi Teroris yang Semakin Kuat





SBY, US Senators Touch Base on ISIS, Defense Cooperation
By Ezra Sihite & Markus Junianto Sihaloho
Aug 12, 2014

Jakarta. US Senator John McCain described the radical Islamic State of Iraq and Syria movement as the “strongest terrorist organization in history,” with strong financial backing and military equipment.
In a meeting with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, McCain said the United States was forced to take military action in an effort to crush the hard-line group known as ISIS.

“ISIS has shown a significant amount of power since it took control of the border of Iraq,” said McCain, who was accompanied by junior senator, Sheldon Whitehouse, in his visit to the State Palace in Jakarta on Tuesday.

McCain said ISIS has successfully spread its ideology of hate and violence to other countries, including to Indonesia and the US, with the return of Indonesian and American youths from Syria to their respective countries.
McCain called on all nations to immediately squash the dangerous, hard-line methods of ISIS, “so that people would not be attracted to its ideology.”
McCain believed that air strikes would be effective in crushing ISIS, which has recently changed its moniker yet again to Islamic State, or IS.

Meanwhile, Iraq and Syria, the two countries that served as the basis for the group, should be proactive in handling the problem, he said.
“Air strikes and military forces are needed to weaken ISIS,” said McCain, adding that he is confident Indonesia has what it takes to stop the movement in its tracks.
“I believe that all countries, including Indonesia, are doing what they have to do to prevent people from becoming interested in the radical Islamic ideology like that,” he said.

Gaza conflict
During the meeting, McCain and Yudhoyono refrained from discussing the Gaza conflict in length, despite Indonesia’s strong rejection toward Israel’s aggressive military strikes, which have killed more than a thousand civilians.

However, McCain said that he hoped that the cease-fire between the Israeli military and Hamas would continue so that both Israel and Palestine could reach an agreement that would finally put an end to the month-old conflict.
McCain then called on the Sunni Islamic outfit to “stop the terror.”
McCain said negotiations between both parties can resume following the cease-fire, adding that the United States is encouraging both parties to find a peaceful solution that would prevent further bloodshed.

Indonesian presidential adviser on international relations Teuku Faizasyah confirmed that the president and the visiting US senators did speak in detail regarding the Gaza issue.
“The discussion was more on ISIS,” said Faizasyah.
Faizasyah added that the politicians also reviewed the South China Sea dispute as well as bilateral relations between Indonesia and the US.

Defense, economic cooperation
Yudhoyono told the US senators that with Indonesia’s economy recovering, the government is taking the momentum to start making improvements on its defense system.
“Our economy has improved, therefore we are able to modernize our military [equipment],” said Yudhoyono.

Indonesia has not upgraded its defense system in 20 years but instead has been taking measured steps toward its 2024 goal of reaching the Minimum Essential Force (MEF) with the recent purchase of Leopard tanks and Marder infantry fighting vehicles from Germany.

Yudhoyono hoped that Indonesia and the US will be able to build stronger, defensive ties in order to create peace within the Asia-Pacific region, according to Faizasyah. The US has one of the strongest military forces in the world, and it deploys drones to conduct surveillance and perform air strikes.
“They discussed various issues pertaining to regional developments, including the South China Sea issue and the president’s views on the reformation [process] in Myanmar,” he said.

Touching on matters such as religion, McCain expressed his hopes of Indonesia showing the world that Islam and democracy can work together to create a fair and free country.
“We believe Indonesia is an open and democratic country under [Yudhoyono’s] leadership, with the most populous Muslim population,” said McCain. He added that the US is committed to supporting Indonesia’s multi-faceted developments and will work to enhance cooperation between both countries.
“We will continue to strengthen our cooperation with Indonesia, among them in the economic, education, environment and military sectors,” McCain said.

PDI-P’s foreign ties
Andreas Hugo Pareira, head of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle’s (PDI-P) defense and foreign affairs unit, reminded both the public and Indonesian politicians not to speculate about the meeting that took place between the US senators and the officials of the party.
“I don’t understand these comments people have made about foreign intervention. What intervention? This is just normal,” he said, referring to rumors that questioned PDI-P’s connections and loyalties to the US.

PDI-P chairwoman Megawati Soekarnoputri, who is on vacation in the US, was invited to a discussion on global issues. In Indonesia, US senators met with Sidarto Danusubroto, who is the speaker of the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR), and Pramono Anung, the deputy speaker of the House of Representatives. Both men are PDI-P politicians.
Andreas insisted that it was customary for the former leader of a country to be invited to a discussion on global issues while in the US.
“Don’t be too paranoid when you hear of a politician communicating or having a discussion with foreign politicians. This is to maintain good relations. It’s good to express our stance,” he said
Andreas added that it was normal for Sidarto, who is often approached by foreign dignitaries, to meet with visiting US senators.




SBY thanks McCain for US support to modernize RI military
Tue, August 12 2014, 6:06 PM

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has thanked visiting US senator John McCain for his country’s support to help modernize the Indonesian Military’s (TNI) weaponry system.
“We thank the US Congress, especially for its military cooperation, including in modernizing our military weaponry system,” Yudhoyono said as he welcomed McCain to the Presidential Palace in Jakarta on Tuesday, as quoted by Antara news agency.

Yudhoyono said that Indonesia’s military weapons had not been sufficiently modernized for almost 20 years. With stronger defense cooperation, he added, it was hoped that Indonesia and the US could work more closely to help create a more stable and peaceful Asian region. Only in such conditions could Indonesia and other countries develop their economic potential, he went on.

Yudhoyono asserted that Indonesia rejected the use of military action to solve problems, and instead would continue to put forward political and diplomatic approaches to create stability in the region.

In 1991, the US Congress banned Indonesia from buying US weapons to upgrade its military weapons system, following allegations of gross human rights violations in Santa Cruz, East Timor.
All weaponry systems must be rejuvenated regularly.
After more than 20 years, the US agreed to sell its military weapons — both new and used — to Indonesia, including three of the 24 units of F-16 Fighting Falcon Block 521Ds once used by the US National Air Force Reserves.

In a recent development, the Indonesian Army said it planned to buy eight units of AH-64D Apache fighting helicopters from their manufacturer, the Boeing Company.
If the plan is realized, the Army will operate two types of fighting helicopter at once, namely Mil Mi-35Ps from Russia and AH-64D Apaches from the US. (put/ebf)




US Senators Praise Indonesia as Growing Democratic Nation
By Carlos Paath & Markus Junianto Sihaloho
Aug 11, 2014

Jakarta. US senators described Indonesia as a growing democratic country and hoped that Indonesia will continue to mature and become a strong nation in the Asian region.
“They hope that democracy in Indonesia can grow well and that [Indonesia] can become a compatible partner for them because we are the third democratic country and they are the second [in the world],” said Pramono Anung, deputy speaker of the House of Representatives for the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P).
He spoke after a closed meeting with a delegation of US senators, including John McCain, a candidate in the 2008 US presidential election, at the House building on Monday.

During the meeting, Pramono said that the United States opens the door for better defense cooperation between both countries.
Pramono said that better relations with the US is necessary after the country slapped an embargo on Indonesia for spare parts of fighter aircraft.

The senators hoped to enhance cooperation between Indonesia and the US in several sectors.
“They also hoped to enhance existing cooperation in the education, trade, defense and cultural sectors with the new government,” said Pramono.

In the meeting with Pramono, McCain was accompanied by senators from both Republican and Democratic parties such as Jim Moran, Kay Granger, Ken Calvert, and Rodney Frelinghuysen.
McCain — accompanied by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse and US Ambassador to Indonesia Robert O’Blake — also met with the speaker of the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR), Sidarto Danusubroto, in his office.

Sidarto said that the senators admired Indonesia’s growing democracy and as the country with the biggest Muslim population.
“He admires Indonesia’s growing democracy and Indonesia with the biggest [number of] Muslims,” he said.

Sidarto said that McCain reminded Indonesia to remain cautious about the movement of the radical group Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), which has also made headway in the US. “I told them that we have also declared ISIS as an illegal movement in Indonesia,” Sidarto said.

McCain and his fellow senators refrained from congratulating President-Elect Joko Widodo even though scores of world leaders, including US President Barack Obama, have congratulated Joko for his victory in this year’s presidential race.
McCain, who was Obama’s rival in the 2008 presidential election, is said to be holding back, waiting for the Constitutional Court’s ruling before conveying his congratulations to Joko.
“He [McCain] doesn’t want to say it now. [He is] still waiting for the MK [Constitutional Court] ruling,” Sidarto said.

Sidarto said that McCain praised the democratic process of Indonesia’s presidential election.
“They respect Indonesia,” he said.






Jul 24, 3:11 AM EDT

WASHINGTON (AP) -- President Barack Obama's quick congratulation for Indonesia's election victor Joko Widodo,
even as the losing candidate rejected the result, underscores Washington's intent to deepen ties with Jakarta and support democracy in Southeast Asia.

A peaceful transfer of power in Indonesia would buck a worrying
trend in a region marred by flawed elections and military meddling.
It would also show that democracy thrives in the country with the world's largest Muslim population.

Over the past year, there have been disputed elections in Malaysia and Cambodia, where this week the opposition agreed to end a parliamentary boycott. Thailand, once an example of democratic progress, is facing its most repressive period of military rule in decades. Authoritarian governments prevail in Laos and Vietnam, and reforms seem to be stalling in former pariah state Myanmar.

Political change has been comparatively smooth in Indonesia, the largest country in Southeast Asia, over the past decade and a half. The emergence of Widodo appears to reflect how far it has come since popular protests ended the 30-year rule of former dictator Suharto in 1998.

Widodo, the 53-year-old Jakarta governor, was the first candidate in a direct presidential election without ties to Suharto. He won by 8 million votes, or 6 percent, over Prabowo Subianto, a former general and son-in-law of the late dictator. Political uncertainties remain, however, as Subianto announced Wednesday he plans to file a legal challenge in the nation's highest court.

Election observers have reported few abnormalities, and the U.S., whose embassy witnessed vote counting, is confident it was a credible process.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry congratulated Widodo soon after Tuesday's official result, and hours later, President Obama called the president-elect. He pointedly stated, according to a White House statement issued Wednesday, that "through this free-and-fair election, the people of Indonesia have once again shown their commitment to democracy."

Working with current President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, who has served since 2004 and will cede power Oct. 20, Obama has cultivated a stronger U.S. relationship with Indonesia as part of his administration's effort to "rebalance" American foreign policy toward Asia. Obama, who lived in Indonesia as a child, visited the country twice during his first term.

The two nations declared a comprehensive partnership in 2010, and cooperate on areas including health, environment, education and regional diplomacy. Washington has encouraged Indonesia's de facto leadership of Southeast Asia's regional bloc as it strives for economic integration and copes with the rise of increasingly assertive China.

Indonesia has sought to main a strategic balance between the U.S. and China, and that's likely to continue under Widodo, although he's given few clues during the campaign about foreign policy, a field where he has scant experience. His first opportunity to meet Obama is likely to be at the East Asia Summit to be held in Myanmar in November.

The former furniture exporter, who won Indonesians over with his homespun style, has little experience on the national stage either but enjoys a reputation for efficient leadership. He will have plenty on his plate governing a vast archipelago of 240 million people. Economic growth has slowed over the past two years. The rising cost of fuel subsidies has forced cuts in state spending, and infrastructure is in a poor state.

Despite Indonesia's emergence as a democracy, corruption is chronic. Indonesia ranked 114th out of 177 countries on Transparency International's 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index.

U.S. officials are concerned over obstacles to foreign investment and mounting resource nationalism that has resulted in new regulations limiting foreign investment in mining and oil and gas extraction.
And notwithstanding Indonesia's reputation for moderate Islam and success in counterterrorism, the U.S. is concerned over the government's failure to prevent persecution of religious minorities, such as Christians, minority Shiite Muslims and the Ahmadiyah Islamic sect.

But the Widodo victory takes at least one sensitive issue off the agenda - the human rights record of Prabowo, said Doug Paal, who served as White House director of Asian affairs under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

Prabowo, a former commander of Indonesia's notorious special forces, has been accused of ordering the disappearance of political activists before Suharto's fall, allegations that reportedly led to him being denied a U.S. visa.

"That's a plus from the start with `Jokowi,'" said Paal, using Widodo's nickname. "There's no legacy to detoxify."







U.S. Department of State
Office of the Spokesperson

For Immediate Release
July 22, 2014

Statement by John Kerry on the Indonesian Presidential Election

Secretary Kerry warmly congratulates Indonesia’s President-elect Joko Widodo.
The people of Indonesia have once again shown their commitment to democratic institutions through free and fair elections. Following the July 9 vote, the Indonesian General Election Commission completed the official vote count and announced the president-elect today, in a manner established by electoral regulations and Indonesian law.

The United States and Indonesia, the world’s second and third largest democracies, respectively, share many common values, including respect for human rights and the rule of law. Our two nations have worked hard to build the U.S.-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership, which has strengthened our bilateral relationship and facilitated deeper cooperation on common regional and global challenges.

We look forward to working with President-elect Widodo as we strive to enhance our partnership, promote our shared objectives globally, and expand people-to-people ties between our two nations.







Editorial: Timing of US Envoy's Remark Is Dubious

US Ambassador Robert Blake has taken a real gamble that may risk his country's relations with Indonesia with his comment against one of the candidates, just two weeks ahead of the July 9 presidential election. Also, while the ambassador's statement initially seems to give Joko an upper hand, it could backfire. It shows Indonesians that Joko is supported by the United States, and that the lone superpower has intervened in the election, fanning anti-American sentiment and driving many voters from the Jakarta governor, who is still leading the race.




August 10.2014

In email correspondence

Editor asked the Wall Street Journal to also place
the below statements of the Indonesia Government. as a common courtesy
But it seems they are not interested in doing so.

1. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (see below)

SBY Says Indonesia Doesn’t Need Foreign Interference
By Jakarta Globe on 09:20 am Jul 16, 2014

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono swore he would not let foreigners meddle with Indonesia's presidential election dispute, ahead of a visit to the country by former US president Bill Clinton
Clinton's proposed visit to Indonesia

2. Reprimand of Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa in response to the Wall Street Journal (see below)

US Envoy reprimanded

"US Ambassador Robert Blake has breached diplomatic ethical code by intervening in the 2014 presidential election.
Regardless of the winner the foreign interventions are disturbing us," he said.

(ndonesia's Foreign Minister Speaks Out Against US Envoy
Blake's statement is perceived as an attempt by the United States to meddle in Indonesia's domestic affairs Foreign mass media and envoy accused of intervention in election)





Wall Street Journal

U.S. Envoy Calls for Probe of Indonesian Candidate Subianto's Record

June 22, 2014
U.S. Ambassador Robert Blake says Indonesia should look into allegations that presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto was involved in human-rights abuses in the 1990s as a general heading the country's Special Forces.
"We do not take a position on Indonesia's presidential candidates," Mr. Blake, the ambassador to Indonesia, said in an email to The Wall Street Journal. "We do, however, take seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urge the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims."
Mr. Blake has said the U.S. can work with whomever is elected. The embassy noted that the U.S. supports the investigation and resolution of all human-rights allegations.

The ambassador's call for an investigation comes as Indonesia's troubled history of human rights is taking on a higher profile in the presidential campaign.




 In an e-mail to The Wall Street Journal, he said Indonesia should look into allegations that Prabowo Subianto was involved in human-rights abuses in the 1990s as a general commanding the country’s special forces.
The ambassador underlined that his intent was not to target Prabowo — who has been denied entry to the United States because of his human rights record — but to highlight the need for accountability for human-rights abuses. However, the timing of his statement is questionable.

He could have made it long before the election, or afterwards. Such a statement sends a signal to the world that the United States leans toward Joko Widodo, and does not want Prabowo to become president


The next Marshall Green???







Antara News

US Envoy reprimanded

July 12, 2014

JSC Chairmain Bugiakso stated:
Intervention has also been committed by US Ambassador Robert Blake through his article in June carried by the "Wall Street Journal" discrediting Prabowo Subianto.
Bugiakso said
Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa had reprimanded the US Ambassador for the intervention.

"US Ambassador Robert Blake has breached diplomatic ethical code by intervening in the 2014 presidential election.
Regardless of the winner the foreign interventions are disturbing us," he said.

(see Antara News below)






Last speech of
President Sukarno:


A story of the treacherous manipulations and covert actions
of the US and its allies to remove a president
who did not want to side with them

He fought Western domination but in the end tragically succumbed
to their political pressures, intrigues and machinations
as well as biased Western media reporting





President Suharto was one of the disposable leaders:

Habis manis sepah dibuang
applies to
US-Indonesia Relations

American Henchmen:Disposable leaders









US treacherous role in Indonesia




Sukarno Years


Suharto Years


Eisenhower ordered CIA to foment coup in 1958


Gestapu 1965 - The end of Sukarno


Silent Genocide - An Indonesian Tragedy


US supported student actions 1966-1967


US Role in East Timor


The Truth about the Bali Bombings


IMF topples Suharto


CIA-NSA documents


John Kerry: President Suharto has to go


American Henchmen:Disposable leaders


Economic Hitman


Indonesia Development and the World Bank


Indonesia Mastercard in Washington's hand


Western Corporate takeover of Indonesia








US relations

President Sukarno was branded a communist
- a valid Western reason for getting rid of a an unwanted political opponent - then forced out of office.

Suharto , a staunch US ally, became his successor.






US supported student actions 1966-67

Only months before the coup, U.S. Ambassador Marshall Green had arrived in Djakarta, bringing with him the reputation of having masterminded the student overthrow of
Syngman Rhee in Korea and sparking rumors that his
purpose in Djakarta was to do the same there.

Old manuals on student organizing in both Korean and English were supplied by the embassy to KAMI's top leadership soon after the coup.





On the Fall of the Rupiah and Suharto
by Steve H. Hanke

To depose Suharto, two deceptions were necessary.
The first involved forging an IMF public position of open hostility to currency boards.

This deception was required to convince Suharto
that he was acting heretically and that, if he continued,
it would be costly




After retiring from the IMF,
Michel Camdessus,
Managing Director IMF,
(January 1987-February 2000)

proudly proclaims that

"it created conditions that Suharto left office!"



A May 21 report by Reuters news service
quoted US President Bill Clinton as saying

"We welcome President Suharto's decision, which provides
an opportunity to begin a process leading to a real
democratic transition for Indonesia -- an opportunity for
the Indonesian people to come together and build a stable democracy for the future".

"It's clear that we're kind of dancing around here,"
said Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.).

"It seems to me that the message
is very simple and very direct:

President Suharto has to go.






July 15, 2014

Jakarta. Former US President Bill Clinton’s plan to stop by Indonesia during his scheduled Asia-Pacific trip this week has stirred resistance from the camp of presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto — which perceives the visit as a US attempt to meddle in this country’s domestic affairs.
Prabowo’s tycoon brother, Hashim Djojohadikusumo, questioned Clinton’s motive for visiting, claiming his Indonesian hosts are connected to rival candidate, Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo.

Hashim suggested Clinton re-think his plan to stop over in Indonesia, calling the timing “inappropriate.”

“We’d like President Clinton to not get involved in our domestic political affairs,” Hashim said, according to Australia Network News.
“I don’t know whether this visit was planned a long time ago to coincide with the elections, but we’re concerned that the trip may be used for other purposes.

The presidential palace in Jakarta and
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
meanwhile, said they knew nothing of
the former US president’s planned visit.





SBY Says Indonesia Doesn’t Need Foreign Interference
By Jakarta Globe on 09:20 am Jul 16, 2014

Jakarta. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono swore he would not let foreigners meddle with Indonesia’s presidential election dispute, ahead of a visit to the country by former US president Bill Clinton.
“I pray to God. I swear and I ask all Indonesian people, we will solve our own problems without foreigners coming here and playing referee or peacemaker to our conflict. We can solve it ourselves,” Yudhoyono said while breaking his fast at the house of Irman Gusman, speaker of the Regional Representatives Council (DPD), in Jakarta on Monday.

Yudhoyono’s remarks are the latest warning against anti-foreign involvement in Indonesia’s election, one that has been a close and polarized race between former military general Prabowo Subianto and Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo.

Split decision
Both candidates claim to have won the election by a single-digit margin, and all eyes are now on the announcement of the official result from the General Elections Commission (KPU) on July 22.

Earlier, Prabowo’s tycoon brother, Hashim Djojohadikusumo, questioned Clinton’s motive for visiting Indonesia, claiming that those inviting the former president were connected to Joko.
Hashim suggested Clinton rethink his plan to stop in Indonesia as part of an Asia tour, calling the timing “inappropriate.”
“We’d like President Clinton to not get involved in our domestic political affairs,” Hashim said, according to Australia Network News. “I don’t know whether this visit was planned a long time ago to coincide with the elections, but we’re concerned that the trip may be used for other purposes.”

Clinton is scheduled to arrive in India on Wednesday for the start of his week-long Asia-Pacific tour that includes Vietnam, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia. He will pay a visit to projects by the Clinton Foundation in those five countries, according to a press statement from the charity organization he founded, which deals with global health, climate change
and economic development issues.
Clinton is set to arrive in Aceh province on Saturday. There is no mention of Clinton meeting any Indonesian officials or politicians during his visit. Joko’s camp has denied inviting or hosting Clinton.

Indonesian officials also slammed US Ambassador to Indonesia Robert O. Blake Jr., accusing him of pre-election meddling after he wrote in an e-mail to the Wall Street Journal that the United States “takes seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urges the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims” — which Prabowo’s camp has interpreted as a reference to the candidate’s alleged role in the massacre of civilians in East Timor in the mid-1970s and abduction of pro-democracy activists in Jakarta in the late 1990s.

Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa said in a text message to the Jakarta Globe that “while the statement may be a reiteration of the US’s long-held and general view on addressing accusations of past human rights abuses, in Indonesia and elsewhere; however given the current context, its timing and nature reflect a lapse of judgement that is difficult to accept.”
Marty’s newly installed deputy, Dino Patti Djalal, previously said that Indonesian voters must not be swayed by the US ambassador’s statement.
“Don’t give any room to outsiders to make guerrilla maneuvers in our domestic politics,” said Dino, the former Indonesian ambassador to Washington.

He said it was common for foreign powers to try to sway opinion on the ground through accusations, and stressed there
was no need for Indonesians to be outraged at such attempts. “Overreacting may signify our low self-confidence and undetermined nationalism,” Dino said.

Allan Nairn
On Tuesday, Hashim and Fadli Zon, a deputy chairman of Prabowo’s Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), told a press conference at the camp’s headquarters in East Jakarta that a litany of allegations against the candidate by US freelance journalist Allan Nairn, based on an interview conducted in 2001, was part of foreign intervention.
“We don’t want foreigners spreading lies and ruining our election,” Fadli said.
He said that Prabowo’s camp had reported Nairn to the police. “We hope the National Police’s detectives squad quickly investigate our report,” Fadli said.

Hashim accused Joko’s camp for Nairn’s moves to discredit Prabowo.
“Why did Nairn suddenly appear? Why now, when my brother Prabowo is running for president? Why not when he was running with Megawati in 2004?” he said, referring to Megawati Soekarnoputri, chairwoman of Joko’s Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P).
Hashim said Nairn had been used by Prabowo’s rival to tarnish his image.

Mature democracy
Yudhoyono said that Indonesia’s election was peaceful and would not end in conflict because the people had a mature understanding of democracy. He said that if there were no problems then there was no reason for other countries to be involved in Indonesia’s internal affairs.
“If there is a dispute, we should give the KPU a chance. Of course, the KPU must also be professional and credible when they do the vote counting. All of us must also monitor the process,” he said.

Yudhoyono called on the KPU to ask both Prabowo and Joko to monitor the counting process.
“So whoever wins on July 22, the other side will accept it. Of course, there will always be a winner and a loser. Those who don’t accept it can always go to the Constitutional Court,” he said.







Prabowo Camp Slams Bill Clinton’s Visit to Indonesia
By Jakarta Globe on 09:45 am Jul 15, 2014

Jakarta. Former US President Bill Clinton’s plan to stop by Indonesia during his scheduled Asia-Pacific trip this week has stirred resistance from the camp of presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto — which perceives the visit as a US attempt to meddle in this country’s domestic affairs.

Prabowo’s tycoon brother, Hashim Djojohadikusumo, questioned Clinton’s motive for visiting, claiming his Indonesian hosts are connected to rival candidate, Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo.

Hashim suggested Clinton re-think his plan to stop over in Indonesia, calling the timing “inappropriate.”
“We’d like President Clinton to not get involved in our domestic political affairs,” Hashim said, according to Australia Network News.
“I don’t know whether this visit was planned a long time ago to coincide with the elections, but we’re concerned that the trip may be used for other purposes.

Clinton is scheduled to arrive in India on Wednesday for the start of his week-long Asia-Pacific tour that includes Vietnam, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia. He will visit the work of the Clinton Foundation in those five countries — according to a press statement from the charity organization he founded, which deals with global health, climate change and economic development issues.

After Hanoi, Clinton is set to arrive in Indonesia’s Aceh province on Saturday.
“President Clinton will visit sites in Banda Aceh that were affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and assess the recovery and progress that has been made, ahead of the 10th anniversary of the tragedy,” the statement says. “As UN Special Envoy, President Clinton helped coordinate the international relief response.”

There’s no mention of Clinton meeting any Indonesian officials nor politicians in the schedule. Joko’s camp has denied inviting or hosting Clinton.

The presidential palace in Jakarta and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, meanwhile, said they knew nothing of the former US president’s planned visit.

“I cannot comment because I haven’t heard about this,” presidential spokesman Teuku Faizasyah said on Monday.

US Ambassador to Indonesia Robert O. Blake Jr. last month also was accused of meddling in Indonesia’s elections after he said in a written statement that the United States “takes seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urges the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims,” — which Prabowo’s camp interpreted as a reference to the candidate’s record in East Timor and over kidnappings that took place during uprisings in Jakarta in 1998





Indonesia’s Foreign Minister Speaks Out Against US Envoy
By Erwida Maulia on 08:30 am Jul 01, 2014

Jakarta. Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa spoke out against the US ambassador to Indonesia on Monday for urging investigations into presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto’s human rights records — calling the timing of his
comments wrong and the perceived meddling unacceptable.

Ambassador Robert O. Blake Jr. wrote in an e-mail to The Wall Street Journal more than a week ago that whereas his country did not have a position on Indonesia’s upcoming presidential election on July 9, “we do, however, take seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urge the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims.”
To this, Marty said in a text message to the Jakarta Globe, “while the statement may be a reiteration of US’ long-held and general view on addressing accusations of past human rights abuses, in Indonesia and elsewhere; however given the current context, its timing and nature reflect a lapse of judgement that is difficult to accept.”

“I have thus raised the matter with the ambassador of the US,” the minister added, without elaborating further.

Blake’s statement is widely understood to concern Prabowo — former commander of Kopassus, the Indonesian Army’s Special Forces Command — who is now facing off with Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo in the country’s presidential race.
Prabowo has been accused of involvement in human rights abuses in East Timor during the early 1990s as well as the kidnapping of pro-democracy activists in Jakarta in 1998.

Wiranto, commander of the Indonesian Military (TNI) at the time, recently confirmed that Prabowo had been discharged from the force for ordering the abduction of the activists, 13 of who remain missing to this date.
Still, Blake’s statement is perceived as an attempt by the United States to meddle in Indonesia’s domestic affairs.

Teuku Rezasyah of the Indonesian Center for Democracy, Diplomacy and Defense called Blake’s remarks a “fatal mistake,” “unethical” and “disrespectful” to the nation’s democratic process.
Aleksius Jemadu, another foreign-policy observer, said in an opinion piece published by the Jakarta Globe on Monday that Blake’s statement may indicate the United States’ preference of Joko over Prabowo.

Joko is considered more accommodating toward US regional interests, which include disputed territory in the South China Sea and an objective for Jakarta to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership free-trade pact.
“Despite the fact that both presidential hopefuls emphasize the importance of economic independence in their platforms, over the last few days, Prabowo has spoken in a tone that can be interpreted as unfriendly toward major foreign corporations in Indonesia,” said Aleksius, who is dean of the School of Government and Global Affairs at Pelita Harapan University.

Meanwhile, Joko, despite his own brand of economic nationalism, has a “trouble-free” background, making him “more likely to revitalize Indonesia’s democracy by adding the most desired element of good governance,” offering better legal certainty to foreign investigators, Aleksius added.

Aleksius said Blake’s words may be perceived as the United States’ “indirect rejection of Prabowo” and “a tacit endorsement of Joko” — which both he and Rezasyah said could possibly have the contrary effect, costing Joko votes and helping Prabowo win, given a nationalist current running through many Indonesian voters.

Former Indonesian ambassador to the United States Dino Patti Djalal, however, said earlier on Sunday that Indonesians should learn to ignore the commentary of foreigners on Indonesia’s domestic affairs — which is common in any country’s political process.
“Don’t give outsiders room to make guerrilla maneuvers in our domestic politics,” Dino said. “Overreacting may suggest we lack self-confidence and patriotism.”




Dino Patti Djalal Comes to Prabowo’s Defense
By Yeremia Sukoyo on 11:35 am Jun 30, 2014

Indonesian voters must not be swayed by a recent statement by the US ambassador appearing to call for a rights probe
into presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto, says Dino Patti Djalal, Jakarta’s former envoy to Washington.

“Don’t give any room to outsiders to make guerrilla maneuvers in our domestic politics,” Dino, who mounted his own unsuccessful bid for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party, said in Jakarta on Sunday.
He said it was common for foreign powers to try to sway opinion on the ground through accusations and aspersions, and stressed there was no need for Indonesians to be outraged at such attempts.
“Overreacting may signify our low self-confidence and undetermined nationalism,” Dino said.

His statements come amid a furor over an e-mail from Robert O. Blake Jr., the US ambassador in Indonesia, to the Wall Street Journal, in which the envoy said that while the United States did not take a position on the candidates in Indonesia’s July 9 presidential election, “we do, however, take seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urge the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims.”

The statement is understood to refer to Prabowo, the former head of the Army Special Forces (Kopassus) and Army Strategic Reserves (Kostrad), who is accused of rights abuses in East Timor in the early 1990s and the abduction of pro-democracy activists in Jakarta in 1997 and 1998.
Dino denied that he was speaking out in support of Prabowo — who has the backing of most senior Democrat officials, despite the party officially adopting a neutral line — saying instead that he wanted to see both candidates “unite over this principal matter” of foreign meddling.

Prabowo, who has spooked foreign investors with his nationalist rhetoric, embellished that standing even further with comments at a discussion in Jakarta on Saturday in which he called for Indonesia to reject Western ideals such as direct elections.

“Consciously or not, our [political] elites were all educated by the West, including [former president] Sukarno, [former vice president Mohammad] Hatta, [former prime minister Sutan] Syahrir, and even myself.
We’re products of the West,” Prabowo said as quoted by Kompas at a culture dialogue at the Taman Ismail Marzuki cultural center in Central Jakarta.
He said that as a result, Indonesia had adopted Western cultural and political ideals and held them above Indonesian ones, “even though they’re not appropriate.”
“But we’ve gone too far,” he said as quoted by “Like direct elections — we’ve already gone down that path.
It’s like someone addicted to smoking; if we ask them to stop, the process will be difficult.
“I believe much of our political and economic systems go against [Indonesia’s] fundamental philosophy, laws and traditions, but what’s done is done. We need a new consensus.”

If Prabowo becomes president, it will have been through a direct election — the very concept he questioned.














Statement by the Press Secretary on the Indonesian Presidential Election

The White House
Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release
July 9, 2014

We congratulate the people of Indonesia on the successful completion of their historic presidential election.
The high voter turnout, spirited campaign, and strong participation by Indonesia’s public, civil society, and media
underscore the strength and dynamism of Indonesia’s maturing democracy.

As the world’s second and third largest democracies, the United States and Indonesia have many shared interests and values, including a strong belief in the importance of respect for human rights, inclusive governance, and equal opportunities for all people. The Comprehensive Partnership that our two countries launched in 2010 is a long-term commitment to build on our common interests to broaden, deepen and elevate bilateral relations between the United States and Indonesia, as well as to promote mutual understanding and work together on issues of regional and global concern. The President looks forward to continuing that important partnership with the new Indonesian President, as well as with the recently elected parliament.

President Obama and his Administration have valued the partnership with President Yudhoyono, who has worked closely with the United States to strengthen our bilateral relationship and our engagement with ASEAN.
As President Yudhoyono nears the end of his term, he can look back on an important legacy of helping Indonesia achieve strong economic growth, strengthened democratic institutions, and a role as a regional and global leader.
This Administration recognizes with deep appreciation his efforts to build greater understanding between Indonesia and the United States, and we look forward to continuing close ties going forward.







Financial elites and US envoy back Widodo in Indonesian presidential election
By John Roberts and Mike Head
7 July 2014

Amid predictions of a tight finish, sections of the corporate elite in Indonesia and internationally, as well as the US ambassador in Jakarta, have intervened to back Joko “Jokowi” Widodo, one of the two candidates in
Indonesia’s presidential election this Wednesday.

With opinion polls pointing to falling popular support for Widodo—who was earlier touted to be a likely overwhelming winner—intensive efforts are being made to prevent a victory by his opponent, Prabowo Subianto.

Both candidates represent wealthy business interests with close connections to the military generals who have continued to dominate the country’s ruling elite since the fall of General Suharto’s junta in 1998. Widodo, however, is regarded as more pro-free market and more likely to align himself with Washington in its escalating confrontation with China.

Widodo, nominated by the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P) of former President Megawati Sukarnoputri, was plucked out of obscurity by key figures in the ruling elite to become the mayor of Solo, then governor of Jakarta. Despite his carefully cultivated cleanskin image, his links to the military-intelligence apparatus are evidenced by the presence of three former intelligence chiefs on his campaign committee.

Prabowo, a former general, son-in-law of Suharto and commander of the notorious Kopassus elite special forces, is a wealthy business figure and founder of the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra). His corporate interests epitomise the business empires assembled by military figures. His Nasantara group controls 27 companies, involved in oil, natural gas, coal, palm oil and fisheries.

Washington’s preference for Widodo was made plain when the US ambassador to Indonesia Robert Blake sent an e-mail to the Wall Street Journal. On June 22, the newspaper published an article based on the email and citing Blake’s call for Indonesia to investigate alleged human rights abuses by Prabowo.

The Obama administration’s intervention was ostensibly triggered by unpublished army documents, leaked from the Widodo campaign, that detailed Prabowo’s role in the kidnapping and torture of student protestors in the dying days of the Suharto dictatorship. Blake disingenuously told the newspaper that Washington was not taking sides in the presidential race but his action followed poll results showing Prabowo gaining ground.

Although the Wall Street Journal said it was “unusual for a US ambassador to discuss another nation’s candidate for president during the closing weeks of a campaign,” the US government has a long history of intervening in Indonesia, including its orchestration of Suharto’s military coup of 1965-66, in which up to a million people were killed.

Washington’s concerns today are that Prabowo is too nakedly associated with the brutal record of the Suharto era—which the US backed for three decades—plus his nationalist rhetoric against Indonesia being tied to the interests of the United States.

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the outgoing president, sought to balance between the US and China, Indonesia’s biggest trading partner, but there are fears that Prabowo will be more resistant to US pressure to line up behind Washington’s aggressive “pivot” to Asia to militarily and strategically encircle Beijing.

The foreign policy platform of Prabowo’s Gerindra party rejects any “sole superpower” status for the US, hails China’s “proven” economic, military and nuclear strength, and brands the US invasion of Iraq a “failure” that has left the US “more isolated” and weak in international relations.

Washington’s geo-strategic agenda overlaps with the interests of the financial elites. For the first time in its 31-year history, the Jakarta Post , Indonesia’s biggest circulation English-language media outlet , endorsed a candidate. It urged a vote for Widodo, warning that the election represented a critical juncture for the nation, “precarious in its consequences.”

The July 4 Jakarta Post editorial denounced Prabowo for affiliating with “hard-line Islamic groups” and “religious thugs.” Referring to the ex-general’s record of military abuses under Suharto, the newspaper declared: “A man who has admitted to abducting rights activists—be it carrying out orders or of his own volition—has no place at the helm of the world’s third-largest democracy.”

The editorial insisted that Prabowo was “embedded in a New Order-style of transactional politics that betrays the spirit of reformasi.” The “New Order” was Suharto’s military-backed regime of “crony capitalism,” resting on privileged business empires, which was toppled in 1998 after losing Washington’s backing.

Likewise, the London-based Economist, a voice of global finance capital, unequivocally endorsed Widodo. After mentioning Prabowo’s “tainted record on human rights,” its July 5 article denounced him as a “master of money politics” who “bashes foreign investors.” It insisted that Widodo was “less of an economic nationalist than his opponent; foreign investors would cheer a Jokowi victory. He understands the need to cut ruinous fuel subsidies and to boost education.”

The reference to fuel subsidies, on which Indonesia’s millions of working people depend, reveals the anti-working class austerity agenda that will be pursued, regardless of which candidate prevails, in order to satisfy the dictates of investors and the global financial markets.

In its election eve commentary, the Wall Street Journal warned of slowing national output, falling foreign direct investment and a worsening current account trade deficit. “For investors, the clearest signal of change will be how quickly a new president moves to rein in fuel subsidies costing billions of dollars,” it emphasised. “Tackling the subsidies has been politically unpopular and has led to nationwide protests in the past.”

The election offers no alternative to the Indonesian masses. Both camps are backed by business and media tycoons, Suharto-era chiefs and right-wing Muslim parties. Anti-democratic laws restricted participation in April’s parliamentary election to just 12 well-financed ruling class parties and further restricted eligibility for presidential candidates.

Widodo’s coalition encompasses the Muslim-based National Awakening Party, the National Democrat Party led by media tycoon Surya Paloh and the Hanura Party led by ex-army commander Wiranto who, himself tainted by loyal service to Suharto, has been releasing the dirt on Prabowo.

Prabowo’s lineup includes the Islamist parties of National Mandate Party (PAN), the United Development Party and the Crescent Star Party, as well as Golkar, the political instrument of the Suharto dictatorship.

Both Widodo and Prabowo have resorted to nationalist rhetoric to divert attention away from faltering economic growth, revealing the impact of the global downturn, while feigning commitments to protect people’s “welfare.” Promises to improve the lot of the masses fly in the face of the fact that half the population lives at or below the UN’s miserably low poverty line
of $US2 a day.







Why Washington May Prefer Joko Widodo Over Prabowo Subianto
By Aleksius Jemadu on 07:26 pm Jun 29, 2014

With its national interests spread all around the globe, it is almost impossible for the United States to be indifferent about the eventuality of general elections anywhere in the world, especially in those places where strategic interests are at stake. When the US ambassador to Indonesia, Robert O. Blake, was asked a few months ago how the US would respond to the presidential elections here, he said that his country would respect the choice of the Indonesian people.

Recently, people got surprised because the ambassador made an explicit statement in an e-mail to The Wall Street Journal, saying that his government was concerned about allegations of human rights abuses and urged the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims. Such a statement was perceived to be an indirect rejection of Prabowo Subianto and a tacit endorsement of Joko Widodo. What may have led the US envoy to give a hint about candidate of preference?

U.S. Envoy Calls for Probe of Indonesian Candidate Subianto's Record
Ambassador Says Allegations Subianto Was Involved in Human-Rights Abuses Should Be Investigated

By Richard C. Paddock
June 22, 2014 6:40 a.m. ET

JAKARTA, Indonesia—U.S. Ambassador Robert Blake says Indonesia should look into allegations that presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto was involved in human-rights abuses in the 1990s as a general heading the country's Special Forces.
"We do not take a position on Indonesia's presidential candidates," Mr. Blake, the ambassador to Indonesia, said in an email to The Wall Street Journal. "We do, however, take seriously allegations of human rights abuses, and urge the Indonesian government to fully investigate the claims."
Mr. Blake has said the U.S. can work with whomever is elected. The embassy noted that the U.S. supports the investigation and resolution of all human-rights allegations.

The ambassador's call for an investigation comes as Indonesia's troubled history of human rights is taking on a higher profile in the presidential campaign.

Mr. Subianto, who faces Jakarta Gov. Joko Widodo in the election July 9, was discharged from the army in 1998 for insubordination and the kidnapping of nine student activists, according to a document summarizing the findings of an honorary council that investigated his actions.
The document, which was previously confidential, was recently leaked and released via the Internet.
The investigating council of then-generals, including current President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, recommended Mr. Subianto's discharge after finding that he acted unilaterally to detain the students and violated other army regulations, according to the document.

Mr. Subianto's campaign declined to comment on the document or Mr. Blake's call for an investigation of the candidate. One campaign representative said in a television interview that the discharge scenario had been engineered by Mr. Subianto's political foes to blacken his name.
Mr. Subianto also has pointed out that some of the kidnap victims from 1998 have joined the Gerindra political party he founded and support his candidacy for president.

The U.S. government has long been concerned by Mr. Subianto's alleged involvement in human-rights violations committed by Kopassus, the Special Forces unit that he headed. He received U.S. military training twice in the 1980s but later was denied a visa to enter the U.S. because of his rights record.

It is unusual for a U.S. ambassador to discuss another nation's candidate for president during the closing weeks of a campaign. The embassy said the ambassador's statement wasn't meant to target Mr. Subianto but to highlight the need for accountability for human-rights abuses during the Suharto era.
"We remain committed to close relations with Indonesia and expect that relationship to continue," Mr. Blake said in his brief statement.

For Mr. Subianto, the son-in-law of former dictator Suharto, the human-rights accusations could threaten his campaign just as he has been surging in polls.
The heightened examination of his record as a general coincides with Sunday's debate focusing on defense and foreign affairs, which should play to Mr. Subianto's strengths. But the human-rights issue could leave him vulnerable.

The Widodo campaign, which also has the backing of former top generals from the Suharto era, has sought to focus attention on the rights issue.

During the first debate June 9, when the candidates were joined onstage by their running mates, Mr. Widodo's vice presidential candidate, Jusuf Kalla, asked Mr. Subianto how he would repair damage from past human-rights violations and how he would handle the issue in the future.
"I know where your question is going," Mr. Subianto replied, his voice rising. "I am a former soldier. I did the best I could as a soldier. My superiors will judge. You do not understand that we as soldiers placed in difficult positions have to take decisions which are so difficult. I know you are trying to say that I am the one who went against human rights, right? It is OK."

Last week, the Widodo campaign raised the issue more directly. Former Army Chief Wiranto, who was Mr. Subianto's superior and is supporting Mr. Widodo, said Mr. Subianto ordered the students' kidnapping on his own initiative and that the action violated army policy.
In response, Mr. Subianto's campaign filed a complaint with the national elections commission saying that Mr. Wiranto's accusation was unfounded.

Mr. Wiranto's statements are consistent with the findings of the military council that investigated Mr. Subianto in 1998 and recommended his discharge, according to a copy of the document viewed by the Journal.
The panel concluded that Mr. Subianto committed the crimes of insubordination and kidnapping and that he violated professional ethics by not following military rules, according to the document. It is signed by the seven generals who made up the council.

—Yogita Lal in Jakarta contributed to this article.

Write to Richard C. Paddock at


US foreign policy towards the Asia-Pacific under President Barack Obama has been very much characterized by a combination of an aggressive economic policy to take advantage of the rise of the middle class in this region and the consolidation of bilateral relationships with its traditional allies in order to counterbalance the spread of the so-called Beijing Consensus. China has always been ready to provide huge economic assistance in order to allure developing countries in Asia into its sphere of influence. For instance, in 2012 under China’s pressure Cambodia was forced to prevent the Asean Summit from criticizing its unilateral claims of territories in South China Sea. Recently, China has also forced its way to set up oil rigs in a disputed part of the South China Sea.

It goes without saying that over the last decade, under President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Indonesia has served as a strategic partner for the US in many respects. The success of Indonesia’s democratic consolidation, with its political stability and its constructive role in the region, have made Washington feel comfortable. The Americans want the continuity of this state of affairs under the next administration.

It is quite evident that the US government wants to make sure that the new president is not going to introduce new economic regulations that might jeopardize American business interests in this country. Considering the fact that Indonesia has a good prospect of economic growth in the coming years, the US will continue to persuade Jakarta to join a high-standard trade pact called Trans-Pacific Partnership, which may serve as the main US vehicle to increase its economic appropriation in the Asia Pacific.

Thus, the most important question for the US is: which of these two presidential hopefuls will provide the highest likelihood that Yudhoyono’s friendly policies towards foreign corporations will be continued?
Despite the fact that both the presidential hopefuls emphasize the importance of economic independence in their vision and mission, over the last few days Prabowo has tended to speak in a tone of economic nationalism that can be interpreted as being unfriendly towards the presence of major foreign corporations in Indonesia. There is an implicit accusation that they have overexploited Indonesian natural resources and destroyed the natural and social environment along the way.

On top of that, the fact that Prabowo once told the American investigative journalist Allan Nairn that he was in favor of “a benign authoritarian regime” has created a legitimate suspicion that he might not be really democratic at heart.

Although Joko has his own brand of economic nationalism, there are at least two reasons why he appears to be more acceptable to the US and the global market in general.

First, unlike Prabowo, who has a troubled track record related to past human rights violations, with his trouble-free background Joko is more likely to revitalize Indonesia’s democracy by adding the most desired element of good governance. By combining a robust democracy and good governance, foreign investors will be more certain about their profits and legal protection.

Second, the US government will surely welcome one important element in Joko’s foreign policy by which he wants to propose Indonesia’s expanded role in the wider Indo-Pacific region. Indonesia’s positive contribution to the stability of the region may counterbalance China’s increasing tendency to curb freedom of navigation both in the South China Sea and the East China Sea.

If the above analysis about the US government’s standpoint regarding Indonesia’s presidential election is valid, then the ambassador’s e-mail message is more than just a normative complaint about past human rights violations.

Aleksius Jemadu is dean of the School of Government and Global Affairs at Universitas Pelita Harapan, Karawac



Editorial: Timing of US Envoy’s Remark Is Dubious
By Jakarta Globe on 11:20 pm Jun 26, 2014

US Ambassador Robert Blake has taken a real gamble that may risk his country’s relations with Indonesia with his comment against one of the candidates, just two weeks ahead of the July 9 presidential election.

In an e-mail to The Wall Street Journal, he said Indonesia should look into allegations that Prabowo Subianto was involved in human-rights abuses in the 1990s as a general commanding the country’s special forces.

The ambassador underlined that his intent was not to target Prabowo — who has been denied entry to the United States because of his human rights record — but to highlight the need for accountability for human-rights abuses. However, the timing of his statement is questionable.

He could have made it long before the election, or afterwards. Such a statement sends a signal to the world that the United States leans toward Joko Widodo, and does not want Prabowo to become president.

The question is what if Prabowo wins anyway? Will the United States still insist that the elected president be investigated? Or, like in India’s case, where it was forced to swallow its pride and accept Narendra Modi’s victory as Indian prime minister after he was denied a visa in 2005 over concerns that he had violated religious freedoms.

Also, while the ambassador’s statement initially seems to give Joko an upper hand, it could backfire. It shows Indonesians that Joko is supported by the United States, and that the lone superpower has intervened in the election, fanning anti-American sentiment and driving many voters from the Jakarta governor, who is still leading the race.

The United States is one of Indonesia’s closest friends, and whoever wins the election needs to maintain this friendship.








Indonesian election presents U.S. with Modi-style visa headache
By David Brunnstrom

WASHINGTON Wed May 21, 2014 3:34am EDT

(Reuters) - The emergence of Prabowo Subianto as a serious contender in Indonesia's election this week means the
United States faces the awkward possibility of having to welcome another Asian leader it had denied entry to because
of alleged links to mass killings.




Read about the U.S. involvement in the 1965 genocide in Indonesia


The situation has arisen days after Washington found itself having to change course and promise a visa to Indian Prime Minister-Elect Narendra Modi after his landslide election win. Modi was barred from the United States in 2005.

The possibility of another Washington U-turn became apparent after Indonesia's second-largest party on Monday suddenly switched its support to Prabowo from frontrunner Joko "Jokowi" Widodo ahead of July 9 presidential polls.

Prabowo was once one of Indonesia's most reviled men, accused of kidnapping, human rights abuses and a coup attempt after the 1998 overthrow of his former father-in-law, the late President Suharto.
A New York Times report in March said that in 2000 the U.S. State Department denied the former general a visa to attend
his son's university graduation in Boston, but has never said why.
Prabowo told Reuters in 2012 he was still refused a U.S. visa due to allegations that he instigated riots that killed hundreds after Suharto's overthrow. He has denied wrongdoing.

According to Amnesty International, Prabowo was dismissed from the Indonesian military in 1998 for his role, while commander of Special Forces Command (Kopassus), in the disappearance of political activists.

India's Modi was denied a U.S. visa in 2005 under the terms of a 1998 U.S. law which bars entry to foreigners who have committed "particularly severe violations of religious freedom."
He has been accused of links to religious riots in his home state of Gujarat in 2002 in which more than 1,000 people, mostly Muslims, died.
However, after Modi's party swept to victory in elections last week, U.S. President Barack Obama was quick to telephone his congratulations and invite the new leader of a country he has declared a vital strategic partner to the White House.
The State Department said Modi would be granted an A-1 visa accorded to heads of state. Modi has also has denied any wrongdoing and has never been prosecuted in India.
An A-1 visa carries with it diplomatic immunity and is issued automatically - unless opposed by Obama, who has the authority to deny entry to anyone who has committed "crimes against humanity or other serious violations of human rights, or who attempted or conspired to do so."

Asked if Prabowo would be treated the same as Modi if he won Indonesia's election, a State Department official responded with statements similar to those before India's poll result - saying the department did not discuss individual visa cases.
"Applicants traveling on official business on behalf of their government are subject to limited grounds of ineligibility under U.S. immigration law. However, we cannot speculate on the outcome of any visa application," he said.
The official added that the United States remained "committed to close relations with Indonesia and expect that relationship to continue."

Analysts believe that Prabowo, like Modi, would be granted a visa if he wins the election.

Ernie Bower, a Southeast Asia expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies think tank, said that like this week's martial law declaration in Thailand, the Prabowo case is an unwanted headache while Washington is trying to forge stronger ties in Southeast Asia in the face of an increasingly assertive China.
"For the United States, it is most important to focus on the mandate of the Indonesian people.
Washington must embrace and work with whichever candidate is elected."

(Reporting by David Brunnstrom; Editing by Jim Loney and Richard Chang)






Edward E Masters

Ambassador to Indonesia
November 3, 1977 - November 10. 1981

Former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Passes

March 25, 2014

Ambassador Robert Blake and the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta express condolences to the family of former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Edward E. Masters
who passed away on March 21, 2014.

Edward Masters had a thirty year career with the U.S. Department of State, including serving as Ambassador to Indonesia (1977-81) and Bangladesh (1976-77).

Following his retirement from the State Department, he taught at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.

As a former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Masters recognized the importance of the promoting greater understanding between Indonesia and the United States to support a stronger bilateral relationship. As a result, he founded the United States-Indonesia Society (USINDO) in 1994 as a nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing U.S.-Indonesia ties. Edward Masters served as USINDO's President until 2001, afterwards as U.S. Co-Chair, and later as Co-Chair Emeritus. For his commitment and advancement of the US-Indonesia relationship, the Indonesian government awarded him the Bintang Jawa Utama, the highest award given to a foreigner.



Edward E. Masters, Former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia
by Ed McWilliams and John M. Miller*
03 April 2014

Former U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia Edward E. Masters died on March 21. The senior diplomat will be remembered as the U.S. official who did more than any other to shape the U.S. relationship with Indonesia. His ties to the country extend back to 1964 when he was named Political Counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta. He served as U.S. Ambassador in Jakarta from 1977 to 1981. While his official relationship with Indonesia ended in 1981, Masters was a key player in shaping U.S. policy towards Indonesia thereafter, notably since1994 when he founded the U.S.-Indonesia Society (USINDO), a powerful lobbying organization which functioned as flack for the Suharto dictatorship and promoter of the U.S. corporate interests which lavishly funded the organization.

Masters was present at the creation of the three decade U.S. partnership with the Suharto dictatorship which entailed the U.S. providing critical military, financial and diplomatic support for the regime's repression of its own people, as well as the 1975 invasion and occupation of neighboring East Timor (now Timor-Leste). For the U.S., the unspoken terms of that partnership obliged Washington to ignore Suharto's extraordinary brutality. Suharto's seizure and consolidation of power cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of Indonesians. The U.S. Embassy culpability in the slaughter was direct. The U.S. provided lists of Suharto opponents, liberals and purported "communists" to the Suharto regime, a fact that Masters, a senior Embassy official at the time, at one point acknowledged but subsequently denied.

John Saltford in "UN Involvement with the Act of Self Determination in West Irian 1968 to 1969" writes that Masters, then working at the U.S. State Department. told a British diplomat in June 1969, "that Washington saw little merit in getting involved in the 'niceties of ascertainment,'[of West Papuan wishes concerning their political status] which might lose them good will in Jakarta to no advantage."

Masters culpability in the horror that overtook East Timor following the Indonesian invasion and occupation was substantial. The invasion was launched on the heels of a visit to Jakarta by then President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger, who green-lighted the operation which was in final stages of preparation during their visit. Masters became ambassador shortly thereafter in 1977 and played a key role in Indonesia's bloody consolidation of its occupation. As Ambassador, Masters was a central player in drawing up the U.S. diplomatic strategy which defended the Suharto regime from U.S. public and international opprobrium after the invasion. The U.S. position was made especially awkward insofar as it contradicted the position of Portugal, the former colonial power in East Timor, and a U.S. NATO ally.

Masters was key to U.S. administration efforts to deflect U.S. Congressional and media criticism of the Suharto regime over the invasion and famine which stalked the people of East Timor as a direct consequence of Indonesian occupation. He disputed well-established estimates of up to 200,000 Timorese deaths during the Indonesian consolidation, contending that the death toll was "only" about 30,000.

In early September 1978, Masters traveled to East Timor with nine other foreign ambassadors to view the Indonesia's "approach to the East Timor problem." Following the visit, Masters claimed that the Indonesia had reduced its military presence, refugees were taken care of, and movement was unrestricted. He added that Suharto and Indonesia were committed to the economic development of the "province."

U.S. support for Suharto's illegal occupation of East Timor was tangible. The U.S. provided the Indonesian military with the weaponry needed to consolidate control. U.S. provided OV-10 Broncos counter-insurgency aircraft devastated the civilian population driving them from their mountain hideouts into Indonesian camps. Broncos were also used in West Papua where Indonesia's U.S.-backed annexation in 1969 was facing strong resistance from poorly armed but determined Papuan freedom fighters. The death toll there among civilians was unknown but was substantial.

Masters uncritical support for the Suharto regime in some ways was to play an even more important role in the 1990's. In December 1991, Suharto's military assaulted a peaceful march by Timorese students at the Santa Cruz cemetery in Dili, the capital of occupied East Timor. Hundreds were killed or wounded. Western journalists on the scene, though beaten by Indonesian soldiers, were able to report the "Santa Cruz massacre" to a horrified community.

In response, the U.S. Congress, groups like ETAN, and the public demanded a cessation of military support for Suharto's military. Some training was quickly restricted. In 1994, Masters formed USINDO which worked closely with major U.S. corporations and key players within the U.S. Government to try to rebuild the U.S. partnership with Suharto. The corporate-endowed USINDO lavished funds on travel to Indonesia by Congressional staff who were feted and provided carefully choreographed visits intended to cast the dictatorship in a positive light. The group also worked assiduously to court the U.S. media. In the 1990s, USINDO success was limited. Under congressional and other pressure, the U.S. continued to restrict security assistance and the East Asia financial crisis fatally undermined Suharto's rule.

Ed McWilliams is a former foreign service officer and editor of the West Papua Report
and John M. Miller is National Coordinator of the East Timor and Indonesia Action Network (ETAN)


Edward Masters

Edward Masters has held senior posts as a diplomat, businessman and nonprofit sector executive in a career devoted to advancing U.S. national interests abroad and fostering cooperation among diverse economic groups at home. He has lived and worked in Asia for 20 years, including eight in Indonesia, five in Thailand, plus Singapore, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

United States Ambassador to Indonesia and Bangladesh and Deputy Chief of Mission in Thailand

Founder and President of The United States-Indonesia Society

Ambassador Masters had long felt it was not in our national interests that public and private sector U.S. leaders knew so little about Indonesia. In 1994 he formed The United States-Indonesia Society, a nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing understanding of Indonesia’s size, strategic location, wealth of resources and importance to U.S. national interests. He served as President of USINDO for six years and is now Co-Chairman of the Board of Trustees together with a distinguished Indonesian leader.

He holds a B.A. degree with distinction from George Washington University and an M.A. from the Fletcher School of Law
and Diplomacy.
He is also a graduate of the National War College and has been decorated by the government of Indonesia for his contributions to U.S. – Indonesian relations






US Ambassador Robert O. Blake Jr

US eases visa process for RI citizens
Yohanna Ririhena, The Jakarta Post
February 04 2014, 9:51 AM

Aiming at expanding people-to-people cooperation between the two nations, US Ambassador to Indonesia Robert O. Blake Jr., said US visa applications would be more accessible.

Blake, who presented his credentials to President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono on Thursday, brushed aside the widespread perception that — for Indonesians — US visas were very difficult to secure.

“Sometimes I hear Indonesians say it is hard to get a visa. I want to say very categorically that that is not true,” Blake said during a discussion with the media at his residence on Monday.

Blake cited the fact that the US Embassy in Jakarta had approved most of the visa applications it processed.

“Specifically, 98 percent of Indonesians that applied for student visas […] received those visas. Likewise, 92 percent of those who applied to travel to the US were granted their visas,” he added.

US visa denial is a widespread perception, particularly after the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, with many applicants complaining they were given no clear reason for the rejection.

The situation has also been reflected in the number of Indonesian students applying to study at US universities under US government grants: The number dropped after the attacks in 2001, due to the US’ more stringent visa application process.

Blake emphasized that the vast majority of applicants received visas much quicker now. “It takes on average less than two days to get an appointment and get the visa approved. The applicant then receives the visa within three days. It is very short,” he said.

“I want to extend my warm welcome to all Indonesians who wish to travel to the US, not only students but also tourists and businesspeople.”

Easing the visa application process is part of the US’ efforts to increase people-to-people contact after President Barack Obama and Yudhoyono launched the Indonesia-US Comprehensive Partnership in November 2010.

“Four years after Obama-Yudho-yono signed the comprehensive partnership, the US-RI has an unprecedented level of cooperation,” Blake noted.

Blake who previously served as ambassador to Sri Lanka and the Maldives from 2006 to 2009 also laid out economic cooperation and climate change collaboration to be his priorities over the course of his term in Indonesia.

Both countries need to increase economic opportunities and to expand two way trade and investment.

A recent study commissioned by the US Chamber of Commerce and the US Agency for International
Development reported that between 2004-2012 US foreign direct investment in Indonesia reached US$65 billion

“I certainly want to continue to build upon that positive record,” he said.

Regarding climate change, the US would support Indonesia’s efforts to reduce green gas emissions, he said. In 2009, Yudhoyono pledged, with foreign help, to reduce green gas emissions by 41 percent by 2020.

“The US is pleased to partner with RI to provide help to achieve that goal,” said the ambassador.



















Embassy espionage in Canberra

Leading intelligence and security academic Prof. Des Ball discusses the history of embassy spying and says Australia is a target in our own capital.

Federal politics: full coverage
Analysis: We're battling to keep quiet about all our secrets


Exposed: Australia's Asia spy network
October 31, 2013

Australian embassies are being secretly used to intercept phone calls and data across Asia as part of a US-led global spying network, according to whistleblower Edward Snowden and a former Australian intelligence officer.
The top secret Defence Signals Directorate operates the clandestine surveillance facilities at embassies without
the knowledge of most Australian diplomats.

The revelations come as the US has been left red-faced by news it has been eavesdropping on foreign leaders, including
German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
US President Barack Obama is said to be on the verge of ordering a halt to spying on the heads of allied governments
following the international outcry.

Fairfax Media has been told that signals intelligence collection takes place from embassies in Jakarta, Bangkok, Hanoi,
Beijing and Dili, and High Commissions in Kuala Lumpur and Port Moresby, as well as other diplomatic posts.
A secret US National Security Agency document leaked by Mr Snowden and published by Germany's Der Speigel reveals
the existence of a highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program conducted from sites at US embassies and
consulates and from the diplomatic missions of other "Five eyes" intelligence partners including Australia, Britain and Canada.

Codenamed STATEROOM, the program involves the interception of radio, telecommunications and internet traffic.
The document explicitly states that the Australian Defence Signals Directorate operates STATEROOM facilities "at Australian diplomatic facilities".
The document notes that the surveillance facilities "are small in size and in number of personnel staffing them".
"They are covert, and their true mission is not known by the majority of the diplomatic staff at the facility where they are assigned," the document says.

The National Security Agency document also observed the facilities were carefully concealed: "For example antennas are sometimes hidden in false architectural features or roof maintenance sheds."
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade declined to comment on the potential diplomatic implications of the disclosure.
A departmental spokesperson said: "It is the long-standing practice of Australian governments not to comment on intelligence matters."

The leaked NSA document does not identify the location of specific Defence Signals Directorate facilities overseas.
However, a former Australian Defence Intelligence officer has told Fairfax Media the directorate conducts surveillance operations from Australian embassies across Asia and the Pacific.
The former intelligence officer said the interception facility at the Australian Embassy in Jakarta played an important role in collecting intelligence on terrorist threats and people-smuggling, "but the main focus is political, diplomatic and economic intelligence".
"The huge growth of mobile phone networks has been a great boon and Jakarta's political elite are a loquacious bunch; even
when they think their own intelligence services are listening they just keep talking," the source said.

He said the Australian Consulate in Denpasar, Bali, has also been used for signals intelligence collection.
In June the East Timorese government complained publicly about Australian spying, including communications interception
and bugging government offices during negotiations on the future of the Timor Gap oil and gas reserves.
Intelligence leaks to the media in the 1980s disclosed installation of ''extraordinarily sophisticated'' intercept equipment in Australia's High Commission in Port Moresby and in the Australian embassies in Jakarta and Bangkok.
Further leaks of top secret Defence Intelligence reports on Indonesia and East Timor in 1999 also indicated that Australia intelligence has extensive access to sensitive Indonesian military and civilian communications.

Intelligence expert Des Ball said the Defence Signals Directorate had long co-operated with the US in monitoring
the Asia-Pacific region, including using listening posts in embassies and consulates.
"Knowing what our neighbours are really thinking is important for all sorts of diplomatic and trade negotiations," Professor Ball told Fairfax Media.




Outrage Over NSA Spying Spreads to Asia

By Zachary Keck
October 31, 2013

The controversy over the U.S. National Security Agency’s global espionage operations appears to be spreading to Asia, where it is already sparking outrage among some of America’s allies and partner states.

Readers will recall that the NSA story began in Asia when former NSA contractor Edward Snowden first fled to Hong Kong immediately before news organizations began publishing stories about the documents he leaked. During Snowden’s brief stay in Hong Kong, some stories came to light about U.S. spying operations in Hong Kong and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Although these attracted a lot of attention in China, they failed to garner much interest elsewhere amid Snowden’s leaks about the NSA’s domestic spying operations and his dramatic stay in Moscow's airport. Ultimately, no one was particularly surprised to learn the U.S. was spying on China.

Since that time, Asia has remained largely on the periphery of the NSA controversy, which has more prominently focused on the agency's domestic operations as well as ones targeting Latin America and European countries. One of the only major exceptions to this came in early July when it was revealed that the NSA was spying on 38 foreign embassies in DC, including key U.S. allies and partners in Asia such as South Korea, Japan, and India.

Events over the last month or so, and especially in the last week, strongly suggest the NSA controversy is starting to engulf the Asia-Pacific as well.
Some of the NSA’s troubles in Asia began last week when reports emerged claiming the U.S. had monitored the communications of 35 world leaders. This immediately prompted some Asian nations, notably South Korea, to demand information on whether their leaders were among the 35 being monitored.
“We are checking with the U.S. side for verification,” an unnamed South Korean official told local media outlets, referring to whether or not South Korean President Roh Moo Hyun was among those being spied on by the U.S. back in 2006. The official added: “The government is closely following the issue and is determined to respond strictly.”

Other countries were more confident they had evaded the NSA’s detection. India, for instance, said there was no cause for concern that Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had been one of the world leaders the NSA was monitoring. “The Prime Minister doesn't use a mobile phone and he doesn't have an email account,” a spokesperson for Singh’s office explained. “His office uses email, but he has no personal email… We have no information and no cause for concern.”
This contrasted sharply from where India stood just a month ago. At that time, Edward Snowden provided documents to The Hindu which, according to the newspaper, showed that of the five BRICS nations, the NSA spied on India the most. Overall, India ranked as the fifth most targeted country by the U.S. signals intelligence agency (Pakistan was reportedly the second most targeted behind Iran).

Around the same time that The Guardian reported the NSA had monitored 35 world leaders, Kyodo News reported that the NSA approached the Japanese government in 2011 about tapping optical fiber cables carrying phone and internet communications that pass through Japan on their way to other destinations in the Asia-Pacific. According to the report, which was based on information first published in The Guardian, Tokyo rejected the NSA’s requests citing a lack of legislative authority and personnel.
The same cannot be said about Australia, which is one of four English-speaking countries who have bilateral agreements with the U.S. not to spy on each other and also have a multilateral signal intelligence gathering alliance known informally as the "Five Eyes." In late August it was reported that Australia’s Signals Directorate has, in partnership with its American and British counterparts, been tapping underwater fiber optic cables that carry information across Asia and parts of the Middle East and Europe.

In following up on this revelations, Australian newspapers were told by former and current Australian officials that Singapore is intimately involved in the tapping of fiber optic cables as well. When asked about the usefulness of the fiber optic cable operation, one former Australian Defense intelligence officer told Fairfax Media that it gives the parties involved a “stranglehold on communications across the Eastern Hemisphere.”

Following up on these initial revelations, new Snowden inspired reports this week show that Australian embassies throughout the Asia-Pacific are secretly used to gather signals intelligence that is shared with the NSA. Earlier this week a report in the German daily Der Spiegel revealed a program codenamed STATEROOM where U.S. and other "Five Eye" nations' embassies and consulates around the world are used to collect signals intelligence on their host countries, often without the knowledge of most of the diplomats stationed at the embassy or consulate. The document directly named Australia’s’ Signals Directorate as one of the participants in the program, although it didn't provide many details about the extent of its involvement.

Based on this report, The Sydney Morning Herald reported earlier this week that the NSA maintains signal intelligence equipment at its embassies in Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Phnom Penh and Yangon, but not in its embassies in "Five Eye" nations New Zealand and Australia, or at the U.S. embassies in Japan and Signapore.
It also said that China is by far the NSA’s main target in Asia.

On Thursday, the SMH published another extensive article detailing Australia’s role in the STATEROOM program.
“Fairfax Media [which owns the SMH] has been told that signals intelligence collection takes place from [Australian] embassies in Jakarta, Bangkok, Hanoi, Beijing and Dili, and High Commissions in Kuala Lumpur and Port Moresby, as well as other diplomatic posts,” the report said.

A former Australian intelligence officer quoted in the report said that STATEROOM operations in Indonesia have been particularly successful.
“The huge growth of mobile phone networks has been a great boon and Jakarta's political elite are a loquacious bunch; even when they think their own intelligence services are listening they just keep talking,” the former officer told Fairfax Media.

The report goes on to note that this is hardly the first time Australia has been caught using its embassies to spy on Asian neighbors. In one of the many previous incidents recounted in the SMH report, during the 1980s leaks to the media revealed that Australia had extremely sophisticated signals intelligence equipment installed in its embassies in Jakarta and Bangkok.
This doesn’t appear to have made the target countries any less offended by the latest revelations of spying, however. Even before the Thursday SMH report was published, Indonesia blasted the U.S. on Tuesday for the initial Der Spiegel report. Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa said the issue had been raised with the U.S. chargé d'affaires in Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital city.

"Indonesia cannot accept and protests strongly over the report about wiretapping facilities at the US embassy in Jakarta. If confirmed, such action is not only a breach of security, but also a serious breach of diplomatic norms and ethics and certainly not in the spirit of friendly relations between nations,” Marty told reporters.

Not surprisingly, China is also strongly protesting the information contained in the leaks.
"China is severely concerned about the reports, and demands a clarification and explanation," a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson said in response to the new reports.
The U.S. State Department has also listed South Korea and India as two of the handful of countries it is now directly consulting with regarding the latest Snowden leaks.

Image credit: REUTERS/Jason Reed






Being Watched, Indonesia Seeks Answers
October 31, 2013.
Indonesia has demanded the United States formally clarify a news report that its embassy in Jakarta has been used as a base to hack into the electronic communications of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and other Indonesian leaders.
Indonesian experts and lawmakers have asked the government to stand up to the US, and to take stern actions, including sending home several American diplomats or scale back Indonesia’s diplomatic mission in that country.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported — quoting intelligence data leaked by US intelligence whistle-blower Edward Snowden and several Australian officials — that the US Embassy in Jakarta was one of the super power’s 90 surveillance facilities worldwide used to monitor “nearly everything a typical user does on the Internet” including e-mailing, web browsing, Internet searches and social media.
Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa called on Wednesday for Kristen Bauer, the US Embassy’s charge d’affaires, to confirm whether there was any credibility to the news.
“Indonesia can’t accept it and has lodged a strong protest on the news that there are wiretapping facilities inside the US Embassy in Jakarta,” Marty said in a statement sent to the Jakarta Globe.

The Herald also reported, late on Wednesday, that the Australian Embassy in Jakarta was being used for the same illegal purposes of spying on Indonesian officials. An Indonesian official said the Australian ambassador will be summoned to the Indonesian Foreign Ministry’s office to provide an explanation.
Australian intelligence sources confirmed to Fairfax Media that Australia’s electronic espionage agency, the Defense Signals Directorate, is a “full partner” in the program, which they said “overwhelmingly harvests diplomatic, political and economic intelligence, not just information relating to terrorism and security.”

The operations are said to take up an entire room within the embassy compound and that local telephone calls can be listened to at will.

Getting the US to explain
As for the US in the meantime, Marty has asked for an explanation from US officials.
“I have talked with the US Embassy charge d’affaires and demand an official explanation from the US government on the news,” Marty said. “If it’s confirmed, then the activities are not just security breaches but also a serious violation of diplomatic norms and ethics. It’s certainly against the spirit of interstate friendship,” he added.

Bauer is temporary representing the US as Robert Balke, the designated ambassador to Jakarta, has yet to arrive in the city.
During Marty’s phone call to Bauer, the charge d’affaires was only listening, said an official, who asked for anonymity.
“She can’t say anything because she has to report back to Washington. That’s why we are now waiting for the US response,” the unidentified official said.
He said that whatever the answer, Indonesia would ask the US not to conduct any illegal surveillance with the country in the future, and would demand a political commitment to respect the friendship that Indonesia and the US have forged so far.

When contacted by the Jakarta Globe, US Embassy press attache Troy Pederson confirmed that the charge d’affaires has spoken with the Indonesian foreign ministry about the matter.
“We will continue to address these issues in diplomatic channels with our partners and allies,” he said.
Fachry Ali, a senior political expert at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, said the damage has been done on the image of the US, and that Indonesia — as well as many countries in the world — has lost trust on whatever the US has to say and do.

“It’s against human rights — illegal and an attack on our sovereignty. So what else is left? We probably will keep on suspecting the US diplomats even when we do something together,” he said. “Indonesia should be tougher on this issue.”

Ethically wrong
Hikmahanto Juwana, a law professor at the University of Indonesia, said actions by the US were against international ethics and law.
“There are a number of measures to show that we can’t accept such conduct. We can expel several US diplomats or scale down our representation in the US. But the question is do we dare to do such things?” he said.
Hikmahanto said Jakarta’s reaction would most likely only be aimed at taming public anger, and should the US provide an explanation, do nothing.
He said Indonesia should be more cautious in the future when having to work together with the US.
“BIN [Indonesian Intelligence Agency] should actively do its own part to prevent such massive wiretapping from happening again,” he said.

While Indonesia awaits a US response, it also seeks an explanation from Australia on alleged spying activities.
Fairfax Media, the owner of the Herald, has been told that Australia’s collection of signals intelligence takes place from embassies in Jakarta, Bangkok, Hanoi, Beijing and Dili, and High Commissions in Kuala Lumpur and Port Moresby, as well as other diplomatic posts.

A secret US National Security Agency document leaked by Snowden and published by Germany’s Der Spiegel reveals the existence of a highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program conducted from sites at US embassies and consulates and from the diplomatic missions of other “five eyes” intelligence partners including Australia, Britain and Canada.
Code named “Stateroom,” the program involves the interception of radio, telecommunications and internet traffic.
The document explicitly states that the Australian Defense Signals Directorate operates Stateroom facilities “at Australian diplomatic facilities.”

Surveillance in small size
The document notes that the surveillance facilities “are small in size and in number of personnel staffing them.”
“They are covert, and their true mission is not known by the majority of the diplomatic staff at the facility where they are assigned,” the document says.

The NSA document also observed that the facilities were carefully concealed. “For example antennas are sometimes hidden in false architectural features or roof maintenance sheds,” according to the report.
A former Australian Defense Intelligence Organization officer told Fairfax Media that the interception facility at the Australian Embassy in Jakarta played an important role in collecting intelligence on terrorist threats and people-smuggling, “but the main focus is political, diplomatic and economic intelligence.”
“The huge growth of mobile phone networks has been a great boon and Jakarta’s political elite are a loquacious bunch; even when they think their own intelligence services are listening they just keep talking,” the source said.
He said the Australian Consulate in Denpasar, Bali, has also been used for signals intelligence collection.

An Indonesian official said Indonesia would lodge a similar complaint with the Australian Embassy today.
“Yes, we will also ask for clarification on the news,” the official, who declined to be named, said.
It’s not the first time that intelligence gathering in Jakarta by other nations has come to the fore.

Intelligence leaks to the media in the 1980s disclosed an installation of “extraordinarily sophisticated’’ interception equipment in Australia’s High Commission in Port Moresby and in the Australian Embassies in Jakarta and Bangkok.
Further leaks of top-secret defense intelligence reports on Indonesia and East Timor in 1999 also indicated that Australia intelligence had extensive access to sensitive Indonesian military and civilian communications.



Indonesia, Thailand Ask U.S. About Allegations of Spying

By I Made Sentana, Nopparat Chaichalearmmongkol and Abhrajit Gangopadhyay
Thursday, October 31, 2013

Indonesia and Thailand said Wednesday that they are asking the U.S. about allegations it used its embassies for telephone eavesdropping and other spying, expressing alarm should the reports be accurate.


However, a State Department spokesperson said, “We are not going to comment publicly on every specific alleged intelligence activity, and as a matter of policy we have made clear that the United States gathers foreign intelligence of the type gathered by all nations.
“At President Obama’s direction, we’ve begun to review the way that we gather intelligence, so that we properly balance the legitimate security concerns of our citizens and allies with the privacy concerns that all people share. The United States takes the concerns of the international community seriously and has been regularly consulting with affected partners.”

The media reports about alleged snooping out of some U.S. embassies in Southeast Asia surfaced as the U.S. is embroiled in controversy for spying on dozens of world leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The acknowledgement of the practice has caused friction between the U.S. and some of its allies and sparked outrage on social media about the extent of the U.S. intelligence-gathering around the world. In a new development, France and Spain were drawn into the uproar after U.S. officials said that the European countries had collected millions of phone records and then handed them over to its National Security Agency.

Thailand’s National Security Council secretary-general, Paradorn Pattanatabut, said it hasn’t helped U.S. intelligence agencies with electronic eavesdropping.
“That will be against Thai laws related to the protection of rights,” said the security-general said, adding that he had no independent confirmation of U.S. spying on the Thai government. He said Thai national security-related agencies have been put on alert about the possibility.
“We will have to communicate with the U.S. that such an act is really the violation of rights and a crime under Thai laws,” he said. “Thailand does have strict control over right violations while being careful about international relations. Anyhow, we believe that Thailand the U.S. still enjoy good and cordial relations.”

Thai Deputy government spokesperson Sunisa Lertpakawat called the allegations “sensitive.”
She added, “[N] ational security-related agencies are looking into the matter. While this should not really affect Thailand’s national security directly, phone-tapping [spying] is not right and should never be implemented. Every country has their own sovereignty and the world community should respect that.”

The Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said it has called the U.S. asking whether the media reports of alleged snooping are accurate.
“[We] have sought official explanation from [the] U.S. through its charge d’affaires in Jakarta and [lodged] strong protest,” Minister of Foreign Affairs Marty Natalegawa told The Wall Street Journal. “If confirmed, [alleged telephone eavesdropping and other spying] would constitute an unacceptable and serious breach of trust and confidence, [c]ertainly not in keeping with friendly ties and relations.”

In Malaysia, Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim seized the media reports to bash Prime Minister Najib Razak, who did not publicly address the allegations.
“I think the Malaysian intelligence, in particular the prime minister, should not be seen to be so submissive and not prepared to say anything,” Mr. Anwar said. “They must lodge a protest. [T] here is no reason for any country, foreign country, whether it’s United States or any other country to be involved in any internal espionage in any country.”





John Kerry at APEC 2013








RI central in US rebalancing
Bagus BT Saragih
Tue, August 27 2013

The US commitment to sell eight advanced attack helicopters to Indonesia reflects the superpower’s acknowledgment of Southeast Asia’s biggest economy as its most important partner in its pivot to the Asia-Pacific region.

The deal to sell Boeing AH-64E Apache helicopters worth US$500 million to the Indonesian Military (TNI), which includes pilot training, radars and maintenance, was disclosed after a bilateral meeting between Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro and US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel at the Defense Ministry headquarters on Monday.

In spite of the TNI’s human rights record in Papua and a recent raid on a civilian prison by members of the Army’s Special Forces (Kopassus) in Yogyakarta, Hagel said Washington was determined to help Jakarta build its military capability.
“A strong Indonesia is good for the region,” Hagel said. “I welcome the progress Indonesia has made in improving transparency and the protection of human rights.”
Hagel had earlier been briefed by Army Chief of Staff Gen. Moeldoko on the Cebongan Penitentiary raid in Yogyakarta in March, Purnomo said. “Since I was able to get the current status [of the case] and was able to express the point of view of the US on this, and because it has been before the courts [...] that’s all I can say about it for now,” Hagel said when asked about the incident.

The US has been seeking to bolster ties with Southeast Asian nations as part of the US “pivot” toward the Asia-Pacific region amid concerns about China’s growing assertiveness.
Hagel said that the US would stay on its course in Asia-Pacific despite crises in other parts of the world.

“[US] President Barrack Obama a couple of years ago put forward the rebalancing of America’s relationship priorities in the world, it is focused very much on Asia Pacific, an area which is particularly important to the future of the US,” Hagel said.
He said that the rebalancing did not concern only security issues.
“This rebalance is not just about security, it’s not just about enhancing military relationships, although that’s important, but it’s also focused on our diplomatic relationships, our economic, trade, commercial, cultural and educational relationships.”

Jakarta was Hagel’s second stop on his week-long Southeast Asian tour after Kuala Lumpur. He is expected to attend the ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus in Brunei Darussalam from Aug. 27 to 29, after which he will travel to the Philippines.
Hagel also paid a courtesy visit to President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono whom he applauded for his impressive leadership in the region and in many international forums.

The President told Hagel about Jakarta’s concerns over the situation in Egypt and Syria. Yudhoyono, however, did not discuss Washington’s plans to launch military action against Syria, presidential spokesman for foreign affairs Teuku Faizasyah said.
Commenting on the US rebalancing policy, Faizasyah said that Indonesia would always be open to any kind of diplomatic engagement with the objective of boosting prosperity in the region.

“We regard US policy in the Asia -Pacific region [as logical] because it shares common interests with us, not to mention its historical role in World War II among other things. But if we focus on the economic context it is mutually beneficial, the rebalancing is not something to be afraid of,” he said.
Faizasyah brushed off suggestions that the US viewed its presence in Southeast Asia as a counter to China’s assertiveness in the region. “We are not adopting the so-called ‘suspicious approach’. But we must see that there is no single country dominating the region, thus every nation has the right to play its role in establishing a stable and economically developed region. In this sense no nation will want to sacrifice stability or rule out such benefits,” he said.

Hagel said the US had allocated $90 million for foreign military financing and international military education and training programs in Southeast Asia, an increase of more than 50 percent compared to four years ago.
He also said that he supported ASEAN’s efforts to start formal negotiations on a binding code of conduct for the South China Sea.








As Part of Pact, U.S. Marines Arrive in Australia, in China’s Strategic Backyard
Published: April 4, 2012

SYDNEY, Australia — Defense Minister Stephen Smith greeted about 180 Marines in the northern coast city of Darwin on Wednesday, presiding at a welcome ceremony for the first of 2,500 American troops to be deployed here under an agreement increasing the American military presence in China’s strategic backyard.

The Marines will engage in training exercises with the Australian Defense Force during their six-month rotation as part of the agreement signed in November by President Obama and Prime Minister Julia Gillard. The pact is part of the president’s publicly stated strategy of shifting the American military’s long-term focus toward the Pacific and an increasingly assertive China. Beijing has accused Mr. Obama of escalating military tensions in the region.

Ahead of the welcome ceremony, Mr. Smith touched on the changing regional dynamics during an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
“We see this very much as responding and reflecting the fact that the world is moving into our part of the world, the world is moving to the Asia-Pacific and the Indian Ocean,” Mr. Smith said. “We need to respond to that. The world needs to essentially come to grips with the rise of China, the rise of India, the move of strategic and political and economic influence to our part of the world.”

The United States has had military bases in the North Pacific since the end of World War II, but its presence in Southeast Asia was greatly diminished in the early 1990s.
Strengthened ties with Australia, one of Washington’s foremost allies, will restore a substantial American footprint near the South China Sea, a major commercial shipping route that has been increasingly the focus of Chinese territorial disputes.
There has been speculation here in recent weeks about what form any further regional military cooperation between the longtime allies would take.

Ms. Gillard last week confirmed that discussions with Washington were under way about the possibility of flying long-range American surveillance drones from the remote Cocos Islands — an Australian territory in the Indian Ocean — but said no substantial progress had been made on the issue.
A spokesman for Mr. Smith told the newspaper The Australian that the top three priorities to come out of last year’s bilateral agreement were the deployment of the Marines over five years, the greater use of Australian Air Force bases for American aircraft and, in the longer term, the prospect of increased ship and submarine visits to the Indian Ocean through a naval base outside Perth, on the country’s west coast.

Jeffrey Bleich, the American ambassador to Australia, was quick to dismiss what seemed to be a growing news media consensus here that the increased military presence in the region was aimed primarily at containing China.
“There’s this kind of sexy, fun narrative that you hear from pundits and others trying to suggest this is about China, but it’s not,” he said in an interview with Sky TV over the weekend. “If you just look at the Darwin decision, for example, we’ve had our Marines stationed in Central Asia, in Iraq and Afghanistan, and they are mostly an amphibious force. So they need to start training and doing amphibious maneuvers again, and we’re looking for the best place to do it and the best partners to do it with, and Darwin is an ideal spot for it.”

But Michael Fullilove, director of the Global Issues Program at the Lowy Institute for International Policy in Sydney and a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, said that addressing China’s recent assertiveness was definitely one of the major aspects of the policy.
Australia views the presence of American forces in the region as a counterbalance to what it sees as China’s sometimes erratic foreign policy, he said.

“Given that we know that rising powers can disrupt the system,” he said, “it makes sense to balance against the risk of future Chinese recklessness by keeping the U.S. engaged in the region. The more that power can be diffused so that it is spread across different capitals, the less likely you are to have unreasonable actions where one power ignores the other’s needs.”


Chinese anger at US base in Australia
China has criticised a new permanent American military base in Australia, accusing the two countries of having a “Cold War mentality.

By Malcolm Moore, Beijing
16 May 2012

Bob Carr, the Australian Foreign minister, said he was grilled about the new base during three high-level meetings in Beijing, including in one with Yang Jiechi, his Chinese counterpart.
“The most objective way of saying it is my three Chinese partners invited me to talk about enhanced Australian defence cooperation with the United States,” said Mr Carr. “I think their view can be expressed that the time for Cold War alliances have long since past,” he added.

“Australia's view of course is that an American presence in the Asia-Pacific has helped underpin stability there and created a climate in which the peaceful economic development, including that of China, has been able to occur.”
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However, Song Xiaojun, a prominent Chinese Defence strategist and former People’s Liberation Army officer, told the Sydney Morning Herald that Australia could not juggle its friendships with China and the United States indefinitely, and needed to pick its side.
“Australia has to find a godfather sooner or later,” said Mr Song. “[It] depends on who is more powerful and based on the strategic environment.” Roughly a quarter of all Australian exports are sent to China.

The first batch of 2,500 US Marines to be deployed in Australia arrived in the northern city of Darwin in April, as the US seeks to bolster its presence in the Asia-Pacific region.
America is also building closer ties with several South East Asian countries, a strategy that has prompted a sharp response, and accusations of “encirclement” from China.

While the number of US Marines on Australian soil is relatively modest, Australia has suggested it may also allow the US to run long-distance drone missions from its territory and that aircraft carriers and nuclear-powered submarines may be stationed in the western city of Perth.
China criticised the new base when it was first announced by Barack Obama and Julia Gillard last November. “It may not be quite appropriate to intensify and expand military alliances and may not be in the interest of countries within this region,” said Liu Weimin, a Foreign Ministry spokesman, adding that it was the US, not China, that was seeking to use military power to influence events in Asia.

The Global Times, a nationalist state-run newspaper, warned Australia in an editorial that it should not allow the US to “harm China” and that it risked getting “caught in the cross fire” between the two superpowers.



Subject : Amerika Takut "Soekarno Operation" di Indonesia 2014 ?

Posted By: Satrio Aris Munandar
Wed Apr 18, 2012

Dibalik Pengerahan Pasukan AS di Darwin, Australia
Ada sinyalemen beberapa tokoh politik di Indonesia mulai menjadikan dokumen-dokumen kontrak Bung Karno tahun 1960 terhadap sektor migas sebagai materi UU Migas yang baru pada perseteruan politik menjelang Kampanye
Pemilu 2012.

Beberapa tokoh politik penting bahkan akan menjadikan isu UU Migas berkedaulatan dengan role model Venezuela sebagai kampanye politiknya. Tindakan ini belum mencuat ke publik karena beberapa tokoh ini sedang melakukan negosiasi politik
dengan berbagai pihak untuk mendukung aksi gagasan politik Bung Karno terhadap UU Migas.

Mereka menyebut ini dengan kode politik : "Sukarno Operation". Beberapa penggede politik yang berasal dari
Partai Konservatif juga mulai banyak menyetujui ide agresif UU Migas yang baru.

Munculnya isu 'Sukarno Operation' membuat Amerika Serikat berkeputusan memperkuat pangkalan militernya di Darwin, Australia, alasannya adalah 'sengketa dengan RRC' tapi yang tidak banyak orang tau, bahwa kehadiran pasukan Marinir AS adalah bagian dari antisipasi perkembangan politik di Indonesia.

Menurut hitung-hitungan mereka, di tahun 2014, tokoh politik lama 60% sudah menghilang, tokoh politik lama ini terdiri dari
orang-orang yang memiliki hubungan erat dengan Amerika Serikat, memiliki koneksi langsung dengan Washington dan sangat Amerika Sentris. Sementara di lain pihak mulai muncul generasi muda politik baru yang mulai mengakar,
menyusul hancurnya sistem politik muda bentukan partai besar yang korup.
Generasi muda korup ini dicemooh dan tidak mendapatkan tempat di kalangan aktivis, walaupun mungkin di kalangan rakyat masih banyak pendukungnya.

Menurut data pula, pada Pemilu 2014 tidak lagi diramaikan artis-artis televisi yang dungu secara politik dan tidak mengerti
ilmu sejarah, geopolitik, Hukum dan Tata Negara. Pada Pemilu 2014 mulai muncul generasi baru yang paham ilmu politik, sejarah, geopolitik dan ilmu yang mendukung bernegara secara agresif dan konstitusional. Kelompok ini rata-rata
bergaris kiri, militan dan berpaham dasar sosialis.

Kelompok ini akan serius profesional di bidang politik. Penguasaan modal yang sejak tahun 2000-an dikuasai penerus Orde Baru lewat akuisisi perusahaan murah jaman BPPN dulu, dan kini jadi pengusaha mapan, mulai dibidik lewat ancaman nasionalisasi dan gebukan pajak oleh kelompok kiri.

Kelompok kiri yang awalnya tidak memiliki pendanaan politik, mulai mendapatkan pendanaan lewat gerakan rakyat diam-diam, dan beberapa penggede partai yang awalnya sangat kanan, juga diam-diam mulai beralih ke kiri.
Beberapa partai besar bahkan mulai memasukkan anggaran dasar rumah tangga mereka menjadi warna kiri dengan sentrum yang mengacu Pasal 33 UUD 1945.

Gerakan infiltrasi kiri dan sosialisme inilah yang amat mengancam kepentingan asing, gerakan ini akan meledak dan menjadi trend di tahun 2016. Sementara kelompok konglomerasi dan neoliberal semakin terpojok posisinya karena tak mampu merembes di kalangan rakyat. Kelompok lama yang dulu begitu menguasai peta politik Indonesia selama lebih dari 50 tahun, mulai terkikis dan mengarahkan seluruh daya kekuatan politiknya untuk ikut-ikutan ke kiri.

Kelompok muda Kiri ini punya hubungan langsung ke Venezuela, Cina dan Rusia juga punya basis massa yang kuat. Kegiatan mereka amat teratur, terorganisir dan bakal mengagetkan banyak pihak. Acuan politik mereka adalah Sukarnoisme. Apabila sepuluh tahun sebelumnya mereka sangat gandrung dengan Stalin, dengan Lenin, dengan Mao, mereka mengacu pada pemikiran Gramsci atau Trotsky, kini mereka sangat hapal dan lihai menjadikan alat Sukarnoisme dan Tan Malaka sebagai bentuk paling material perjuangan politik mereka.

Kelompok ini sangat militan dan menjadikan hukum-hukum revolusi Sukarno sebagai doktrin baku, total dan harga mati.
Perjuangan mereka adalah menasionalisasi sumber-sumber daya alam ke dalam struktur negara, basis argumentasi mereka adalah Pasal 33 UUD 1945.
Mereka tidak takut dengan perang melawan AS, mereka adalah generasi muda baru yang tercerahkan. Jaringan politik mereka merangkai ke seluruh lini partai politik dan ormas mulai dari sekuler sampai agama, tapi sampai sekarang mereka tidak terbaca kekuatannya.

Pemerintahan Amerika Serikat sangat takut dengan kekuatan ini, mereka sudah mengantisipasi jangan sampai Indonesia jadi 'Bolivia kedua' suatu negara satelit AS yang kemudian terpengaruh paham Chavezian.
Adanya pangkalan militer di Darwin bagi kelompok muda ini juga menyalahi aturan KIAPMA, KIAPMA adalah nama Konferensi yang pernah digelar Bung Karno, sebagai bentuk Konferensi Internasional Anti Pangkalan Militer Asing.

Bersiaplah Indoenesia memasuki jaman politik baru yang keras, sebuah fase paling genting dari Demokrasi Liberal.




US marine 'base' is a mistake, says Fraser
Date April 24, 2012
Daniel Flitton - Senior Correspondent

THE former Liberal prime minister Malcolm Fraser says the new American marine "base" near Darwin is a mistake, and that Australia's grovelling to Washington is hampering ties with Asia.
In a strongly worded submission to the federal government's white paper on future relations with Asia, Mr Fraser has criticised Australia's subservience to the US as a product of misguided assumptions America offers a security guarantee.

"Over 20 years now we have given the impression of doing that which America wants," Mr Fraser writes.
"Over 20 years now we have given the impression of doing that which America wants" ... Malcolm Fraser. Photo: Justin McManus

"We seem to believe that our security can be best assured if we do what we can to win brownie points with the US. This is a mistaken assumption.
''No country can really win brownie points with great powers. Great powers follow their own national interests and we should follow ours."

Mr Fraser is highly critical of the deployment of US marines in the Northern Territory, saying it fuels Chinese concerns over a policy of containment. He also dismisses claims by Labor and the Obama administration that the presence of the marines does not amount to a "base".

"For America to say that 2500 troops do not constitute a base is nonsense, indeed a fabrication," Mr Fraser writes.
"In military terms, a base does not have to be bricks and mortar. If 2500 troops are stationed in a particular place then the language makes it quite plain that they are based in that place. It is a base.
"To say that they are just passing through and that it is not a base is deceptive and misleading. It sends the wrong message, not only to China, but to countries like Indonesia."
He told the Herald he was also concerned Australia would lose more of its independence in Asia should the US turn Cocos Island into a base for unmanned surveillance drones, as reported last month in The Washington Post.

The Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, commissioned a white paper last year guided by the former head of Treasury, Ken Henry, titled Australia in the Asian Century.
Mr Fraser said he had only decided to put his thoughts on paper after the marines' presence in Darwin was announced and reports of plans for a US military presence in the Cocos Islands emerged.
In his submission, he said he was not against the US alliance but for Australian independence.

He said in assessing what to do in the future, Australia should conscious of our history and a dependence on Britain before World War II: "We believed that Britain would be able to secure our future," he writes. "It never occurred to us that Britain would be so preoccupied, so beleaguered, that in a situation of emergency she would not be able to help."




US-Indonesian Relations: A Balancing Act
Daniel Bodirsky - Jun 04, 12

With increased Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea and a re-posturing of U.S. focus towards East Asia, the most powerful Southeast Asian state finds itself at a crossroads as it seeks to balance long-standing relations with the U.S. and the growing importance of its relationship with China, says Daniel Bodirsky of Geopoliticalmonitor.


Since the ouster of authoritarian President Suharto in 1998, Indonesia has undergone a considerable period of political transformation. The post-Suharto period – known as “reformasi” – has seen a number of key reforms implemented. These have been aimed at transitioning Indonesia towards democracy and enhancing good governance.



One of the most important of these reforms has been the transferring of power from Indonesia’s highly-centralized federal government to provincial-level administrations. With 240 million people belonging to 490 ethnic groups spread across 17,000 islands, Indonesia has long been faced with several separatist conflicts. This devolution of power has been essential in helping to quell some of these conflicts.

These political developments within Indonesia have not just improved the domestic political climate. They have also opened the door to a closer relationship with Washington.

Indonesia’s bilateral relations with the United States are already well-cemented. It was seen as a strategic anti-communist bulwark during the Cold War, and as the world’s most populous Muslim country, Indonesia has also emerged as a key regional ally in the global war on terror. A hefty price has been paid for this anti-terror coordination with the U.S however, as evidenced by the Bali bombings and the ongoing struggle with homegrown fundamentalist movements like Jemaah Islamiyah.

But US-Indonesian relations go far deeper than just the war on terror. Indonesia’s 17,000 islands contain some of the most strategically-significant waterways in the world – namely the straits of Malacca, Sunda, and Lombok. These straits see nearly half of the global merchant fleet pass through them every year, as well as a much of Northeast Asia’s energy supplies. These waterways also contain some of the highest instances of piracy on earth. Ensuring the security of the straits and the goods that travel through them is an important strategic objective of the United States.

International focus on Southeast Asia in recent years has centered on increased Chinese activity in the area. China’s rapid naval modernization has gone hand-in-hand with a growing assertiveness in the South China Sea. The South China Sea and surrounding areas contain an estimated 28 billion barrels of oil, making control of the tiny islands that dot the sea a strategic imperative for regional actors. China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan and Brunei all have overlapping claims to the islands. This has led to armed skirmishes between China and some of its Southeast Asian neighbours- the most recent of which being with the Philippines over the Scarborough Shoal.

China’s increased military presence is understandably making its neighbours nervous. It is this fear that is driving Southeast Asian countries like Vietnam and the Philippines into the arms of the United States. Indonesia however is somewhat of a unique case. Barring the tiny Natuna Islands near Borneo, Indonesia has very few overlapping land-claims with China. This has precluded any physical skirmishes with the PLA Navy.

In fact, there has been a marked lack of any substantial confrontation between China and Indonesia, and there are a few factors that may explain why. Nearly all of Indonesia’s pressing security concerns are internal – be they secessionist movements in Aceh and West Papua, or Islamic insurgents. China is not viewed as the threat that other countries in the region take it for, and most Indonesians hold favourable views of China (67%). There are also substantial trade links between the two powers (bilateral trade of $25.5 billion in 2009), so both countries will think twice before provoking the other.

While both the U.S. and China have been courting Indonesia, having Jakarta on friendly terms with Beijing could in fact serve as a boon to U.S. interests in the region. Washington has little interest in seeing more Chinese vessels in the South China Sea. With Vietnam and the Philippines actively seeking U.S. support to counter the growing Chinese presence in the area, Indonesia has the potential to serve as the lynchpin of a coalition of regional actors, perhaps under the auspices of ASEAN. This is one case where Sino-US competition doesn’t need to be a zero sum game. Indonesia’s good relations with China may be the key to a peaceful solution in the South China Sea.

Indonesia’s short-term strategic interests are based on carefully balancing its relationships with the United States and China. While its neighbours ratchet up anti-Chinese rhetoric over miniscule islands, Jakarta has chosen to follow a path of moderation. As an emerging middle-tier power, Indonesia cannot afford to sacrifice its deepening economic ties with China in favour of a stronger relationship with the U.S., as many of the other states in the region have already done. Thus, Indonesia will likely continue to pursue the middle-ground in conducting its relations in the near future.

Daniel Bodirsky is a contributor to




A History of
official US policy toward Indonesia

US policy towards Indonesia in the vital years 1961-1965,
a period which defined the cold war power balance in Southeast Asia.






United States Policy towards Indonesia
in the Truman and Eisenhower Years

One of the prime examples of the way successive U.S. administrations managed to alienate many of the new countries emerging from the shadow of colonialism after [End Page 163] World War II is provided by the downward trajectory of
U.S. relations with Indonesia. U.S. policymakers were convinced that they had played a key role in securing Indonesian independence from Dutch rule in 1949, and they wanted to enlist the new state in Western efforts to deter Communist expansion. They also believed that Indonesia's rich natural resources would play a valuable role in the world capitalist system.

Having failed to grasp the complexities of Indonesian politics that facilitated the growing influence of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), the U.S. government by 1957 had lost patience with the Guided Democracy of President Sukarno.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officials set out to subvert the Indonesian regime through covert action and support for rebellious elements in the Outer Island provinces.
The disastrous collapse of this operation in April-May 1958 led to the adoption of an alternative posture of low-key backing for anti-Communist groups within the Indonesian Army's officer corps...

This analysis of US policy toward Indonesian nationalism argues that Truman's support for independence was based on his Cold War priorities and not principled backing for self-determination. It reveals how Eisenhower's New Look led to a disastrous CIA-backed intervention in 1957-58 and propelled Indonesia toward the Soviet bloc. Exposing the extent of Australian influence on US policy, this account reveals how the personal prejudices of Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles undermined the notion of rational policymaking





 Great Decisions 2012: Inside Indonesia — A Review

by Tim LaRocco | on January 22nd, 2012







 The Democrats & Suharto:
Bill Clinton & Richard Holbrooke Questioned
on Their Support for Brutal Indonesian Dictatorship

Democracy Now! re-airs Allan Nairn’s questioning of Richard Holbrooke, who is now a senior foreign policy adviser to Hillary Clinton, and Bill Clinton on how the Carter and Clinton administrations backed Suharto despite his brutal human rights record.

Brad Simpson, Director of the Indonesia and East Timor Documentation Project at the National Security Archive in George Washington University. He is also Assistant Professor of US History and Foreign Relations at the University of Maryland in Baltimore County. His forthcoming book is called Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S. – Indonesian Relations, 1960-1968.
Allan Nairn, award-winning investigative journalist who has reported from Indonesia for years. He runs the web-blog “News and Comment" at







 US Intelligence Tapping Phones of Indonesian Civilians

December 13, 2007 

Investigative journalist Allan Nairn reveals that U.S. intelligence officers in Jakarta are secretly tapping the cell phones and reading the SMS text messages of Indonesian civilians. Some of the Americans involved in the spy operation work out of the Jakarta headquarters of Detachment 88, a US-trained and -funded paramilitary unit which is part of Kopassus, the Indonesian army’s special forces famed for abduction, torture and assassination. The news comes as Congress weighs whether to send more military aid to Indonesia. [includes rush transcript]






Crafting a Strategic Vision
A New Era of US-Indonesia Relations


By Abraham M. Denmark with Rizal Sukma and Christine Parthemore


An Indonesian Vision

Appendix A

By Rizal Sukma

Over the last 60 years or so, Indonesia-United States relations have oscillated between periods of tension and cordiality.
The state of bilateral relations were, and still are, shaped by domestic circumstances within both countries as well as
the dictates of international politics. There were times when the two countries were intermittently drawn into diplomatic disagreement and conflict, and at other times ties were friendlier than most. However, the relationship could be generally
described as normal and not unusual for many bilateral relationships between any post-colonial country and a superpower. It was a relationship characterized by constant efforts by both sides at managing differences and capitalizing on ommonalities.

What the relationship lacked was a comprehensive framework for a long-term and enduring cooperation. The opportunity for bringing Indonesia-U.S. relations into a more solid foundation came in November 2008, when President Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono proposed a U.S.-Indonesia comprehensive partnership “driven by the need to address global issues, as much as by the imperative to develop bilateral relations,” based on “equal partnership and common interestsh and for the long-term.

The United States responded positively and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, during her speech at the Asia Society in New York in February 2009, declared that the United States is committed to gworking with Indonesia to pursue such a partnership with a concrete agenda.
When the two presidents finally sign an official agreement for such a partnership in June 2010, Indonesia-U.S. relations will enter a new era.

This chapter examines Indonesiafs perspective on a partnership with the United States and its significance for the country, especially within the context of Indonesiafs domestic transformation and its renewed interest in playing a more active role in the Asia-Pacific and the world.
The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the growing activism in Indonesia’s foreign policy and the challenges
facing the country in raising its profile in the international arena. It then proceeds to examine Indonesia’s expectations of the partnership with the United States, as well as the several challenges the two countries need to overcome if the partnership’s
potential is to be fully realized.





US Relations 1950s - 1967
clouded by continuous attempts at subversion


Secret State Department documents released

A supposedly secret State Department history, released today by a private research group, discloses new details of
United States policy during the 1965 campaign by the Indonesian Army to wipe out the Communist opposition in Indonesia.

The National Security Archive, a Washington group that pushes for the declassification of government documents, obtained a copy of an official State Department history that describes American policy in Indonesia in the mid-1960's.










1950's - 1967

From Eisenhower to LB Johnson








President Sukarno

 In Sukarno's words:

I am often asked about my alleged anti-Americanism.
Over the years I have desperately wanted to be
America's friend, but she wouldn't let me.

She repeatedly mistakes
foreign aid for friendship

(quoted from "Sukarno: An Autobiography "
by Cindy Adams page 295)





JFK statement referencing
USA's continuous attempts to overthrow President Sukarno



A superb example of SELECTIVE WILLFUL application of
proclaimed adherence to Humanitarian principles








2002 Bali Bombing

 The Bush Administration demanded that
President Megawati Sukarnoputri,
publicly refute the involvement of the U.S in the attacks.
No official retraction was issued.


President Megawati refuses
to refute US involvement in
2002 Bali Bombing









President Megawati not bowing to US demand
when pressured by US Ambasador Ralph Boyce
to refute US involvement in the
2002 Bali Bombings.

She did not issue the requested official retraction but instead
in her statement called the US:


"a superpower that forces the rest of the world to go along with it…
We see how ambition to conquer other nations has led to a situation
where there is no more peace unless the whole world is complying
with the will of the one with the power and strength."






Scot Marciel
US ambassador
to Indonesia

America’s Future in the Asia Pacific
Scot Marciel | December 08, 2011

US President Barack Obama’s visit to Bali to participate in the East Asia Summit last month was a historic first that affirmed the commitment of the United States to playing a long-term role in the Asia-Pacific region. The visit culminated a long period of quiet, persistent and multi-faceted diplomacy aimed at sustained US engagement in the Asia-Pacific region, which is home to over half the world’s population, comprises the key engines of global economic growth and is a key driver of global politics. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has called US engagement in Asia one of the most important tasks of American diplomacy over the next decade.



This renewed focus on the Asia Pacific is crucial to US economic and political interests, and we believe is also important to the future of Asian countries. With strong flows of trade and investment, a security presence that underpins the region’s stability, and no territorial ambitions, the United States offers a partnership that will be invaluable to peace and prosperity in the region.

America’s commitment is broad and strategic. On the economic side it includes working together with partners from Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam to build an ambitious Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement that will enhance trade and investment, promote innovation and environmentally sound economic growth and development and support the creation of jobs. The future of this region depends on robust trade and commerce, and we hope that Indonesia, China, and other countries interested in creating a new 21st century trade agreement will consider joining us in making it happen.

In Indonesia, our economic partnership also includes agreement this month on a Millennium Challenge Corporation Compact under which the United States will provide $600 million to support environmentally sustainable economic development, public health, and improved public services in Indonesia. We also fully support the Indonesian government’s focus on upgrading its infrastructure and believe that US companies can play a critical role in partnering with Indonesian companies to accomplish its ambitious objectives.
We also are strengthening our treaty relationships and building new partnerships with emerging powers, including China,
to sustain the stability that has facilitated rapid economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region.
People-to-people contacts to reduce lingering suspicions on both sides of the Pacific will also be an important element of
our diplomacy over the next decade.

Our commitment to update and invigorate our security relationships led to the force posture initiative recently announced by President Obama and Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard. Under the agreement, US Marines, starting with a small group of 250 and eventually expanding to a 2,500-person Marine Air Ground Task Force, will rotate to Darwin and Northern Australia, for around six months at a time, where they will conduct exercises and training with the Australian Defense Force. Additionally, we will increase access of US aircraft to air bases in northern Australia to enhance collaboration.
Both of these initiatives build on years of close alliance cooperation between the United States and Australia. These expanded activities will also provide increased opportunities to deepen security ties with regional partners, including in Indonesia, and to better provide humanitarian assistance and respond to natural disasters and other contingencies in the region.

The US-Australia agreement does not involve the creation of any US bases in Australia, but rather is simply a rotation of Marines through Northern Australia to ensure that existing joint exercises can be sustained and expanded.
While many in Indonesia and other neighboring countries have welcomed these initiatives as a positive addition to stability in the region, some Indonesian commentators have speculated that the rotation of Marines through Northern Australia might be directed at Indonesia. This could not be further from the truth. Indeed, deepening security cooperation with Indonesia, as well as other partners in the region, is an important goal of these new initiatives.

The United States enjoys friendly relations with Indonesia and we consider Indonesia to be a critical partner in the region. We strongly support Indonesia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. The new agreement with Australia is part of an ongoing, long-term review of the way American forces are deployed throughout the region and the world and is not directed at any nation.

The United States has a crucial stake in Indonesia’s success as a vibrant prosperous democracy. We all benefit from shared stability and growth. The activities of the United States in Indonesia supports Indonesia’s success, whether through military cooperation such as the grant of excess F-16 aircraft to Indonesia’s Air Force, development cooperation like the MCC compact, or educational cooperation.
Indonesia and the United States share a long history of friendship dating from the first days of Indonesian independence. Our commitment to continuing a long lasting partnership of equals with all of our friends in Asia is unwavering. History will record renewed focus on Asia as one of the most significant developments of American diplomacy after the Cold War.





Obama Says U.S. Presence a Crucial Part of Pacific Security
November 18, 2011, 9:37 AM EST
By Julianna Goldman and Margaret Talev

Nov. 18 (Bloomberg) -- President Barack Obama said the U.S. troops that will be stationed in Australia’s northernmost city will help ensure the security of vital sea lanes, as the U.S. moves to blunt China’s expanding influence.
Commercial traffic through the area is “critical to all our economies,”
Obama said yesterday in Darwin, Australia. “Going forward our purpose is the same that it was 60 years ago: preservation of peace and security

The initiative will anchor an American presence in the western Pacific that can help safeguard the flow of more than $5 trillion of commerce, about $1.2 trillion of it U.S. trade. Maritime security and territorial disputes in the South China Sea will be part of the discussion at the East Asia Summit in Bali, Indonesia, where Obama arrived last night.
In addition to its value for trade, Chinese studies cited by the U.S. Energy Information Agency in 2008 said the South China Sea could hold 213 billion barrels of oil. While the sea borders several countries, China claims “indisputable sovereignty” over most of it, including oil and gas fields.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Weimin said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations is not an appropriate forum to discuss the South China Sea dispute.
Asean is not a party to the dispute, which should be solved bilaterally between nations, not in a multilateral way, Liu told a briefing in Beijing.

Asean Meeting
Obama is meeting with the 10-member Asean in Bali, where leaders also will decide whether to endorse Myanmar’s bid to chair the regional meetings in 2014.
China’s foreign ministry reacted coolly to the U.S.- Australia defense arrangement, saying the agreements needed to be studied to assess their benefit for the region.

U.S. Marines will be stationed in northern Australia under the plan announced by Obama and Prime Minister Julia Gillard. The troops will be deployed on a six-month rotation, starting with 250 personnel and eventually expanding to as many as 2,500.
Darwin will become home to joint military training exercises as part of what Obama called a “deliberate and strategic decision” to secure a long-term U.S. role in an area that accounts for half the world’s economy.
“This is part of the entire process of strengthening relationships against China,” said Robert Dujarric, director of the Institute of Contemporary Asian Studies at Temple University’s Tokyo campus.

China and U.S.
Obama has spent the past week pressing China on security and economic issues while saying U.S. moves on defense and trade aren’t meant to isolate it.
“All of our nations have a profound interest in the rise of a peaceful and prosperous China -- and that is why the United States welcomes it,” Obama said in an address to Australia’s Parliament yesterday.

Darwin, the first Australian city to be bombed by Japan in World War II, is a growing energy hub with companies including Royal Dutch Shell Plc, Total SA and ConocoPhillips planning to spend more than A$150 billion (about $151 billion in U.S. dollars) developing natural gas fields off the northern coast over the next decade. China, the world’s most populous nation and its second-biggest economy, is seeking natural resources in the region to fuel its economic growth.
“Darwin has been a hub moving out aid, caring for victims, making sure we do right by the people of this region, and that is what we are going to keep doing,” Obama said in remarks to U.S. and Australian troops in Darwin.

Impact in Darwin
Australia’s Northern Territory is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world with 0.2 people per square kilometer, compared with Alaska’s ratio of 1.04. It takes as long to fly from Sydney to Darwin as it does to fly from Darwin to Singapore.
The additional U.S. military presence will mean a “direct economic benefit” to the region, the territory’s chief minister, Paul Henderson, said in a Nov. 16 interview.

Not everyone is convinced that those benefits are worth the problems that may come with a greater U.S. military exposure. Darwin Residents Against War, a group formed in response to the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, protested the agreement outside Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, today.
Justin Tutty, a member of the group, said he was concerned about possible social conflicts related to U.S. troops.
“It’s good to have a good economy,” said Tutty, a 39- year-old software engineer. “It’s better to have a safe place for kids to grow up.”
The U.S. helped defend Australia during World War II and 91 U.S. Navy personnel were killed during Japan’s Feb. 19, 1942, raid on Darwin.

Maintaining Defense
While in Australia, Obama sought to dismiss concerns that efforts to shrink U.S. debt would lead to cutbacks in the U.S. military presence in the Asia-Pacific region.
In his 25-minute address to Parliament yesterday, Obama said the U.S. is “a Pacific power and we are here to stay” regardless of spending constraints.

A special congressional committee is closing in on a Nov. 23 deadline to come up with a plan to trim the U.S. budget deficit by at least $1.5 trillion over the next decade. Failure to act this year would force $1.2 trillion in automatic spending cuts beginning in 2013, including $500 billion from the defense budget over 10 years. That would be on top of about $450 billion in Pentagon cuts already planned in the next decade.
“Reductions in U.S. defense spending will not -- I repeat, will not -- come at the expense of the Asia-Pacific,” Obama told Parliament. “We will allocate the resources necessary to maintain our strong military presence in this region.”
He said engagement in the region is “critical” for creating American jobs.

The U.S. this year has exported more to the Pacific Rim than to Europe. Obama has set a goal of doubling U.S. exports in five years, to $3.14 trillion a year by the end of 2014.
At the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit he hosted in Hawaii last weekend, Obama announced that the U.S., Australia and seven other nations will form a Trans-Pacific Partnership trade accord within a year, in what would be the biggest U.S. deal since the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement.
--With assistance from Joe Schneider and Benjamin Purvis in Sydney and Michael Forsythe in Beijing. Editors: Joe Sobczyk, Leslie Hoffecker

To contact the reporters on this story: Julianna Goldman in Bali, Indonesia, at; Margaret Talev in Bali, Indonesia, at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Edward Johnson at; Mark Silva at




The Trans-Pacific Partnership Has Economic And Strategic Purpose For The US
Photo Credit: David_Shankbone



America's New "Pacific Offensive" - A Strategy To Contain China

17 November 2011.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a multilateral free trade agreement that aims to further liberalise the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. While the economics of the TPP is important, the strategic component is even more so. This is the second leg of America's new "Pacific offensive," aimed at offering nations in the region an alternative to excessive and rapidly growing dependence on a rising China

NEW DELHI – At their recent summit in Cannes, the G-20 shelved, if not buried, the World Trade Organization’s moribund Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations. Crisis-weary Europe and America face a rising tide of protectionism at home, and are trying to find ways to blunt the edge of China’s non-transparent trade competitiveness.

Turning his attention from the Atlantic to the Pacific, US President Barack Obama – with his eye, once again, trained on China – has now unveiled a new regional trade initiative. Why was the US unwilling to move forward on the Doha Round, but willing to pursue a regional free-trade agreement?

Related: Capital Controls & Currency Wars: Will The G-20 Get It Right?

Related: The G-20 Must Get Its Act Together: Gordon Brown

The answer lies in the fact that the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), launched by Obama and the governments of eight other Pacific economies – Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam – is not just about trade.

While Obama chose to stick to the economic factors driving the TPP, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, on the eve of the just-concluded Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation gathering in Hawaii, laid out the initiative’s wider strategic context.
“The United States will continue to make the case that….[the region] must pursue not just more growth, but better growth,” which “is not merely a matter of economics,” Clinton said. “Openness, freedom, transparency, and fairness have meaning far beyond the business realm,” she continued. “Just as the United States advocates for them in an economic context, we also advocate for them in political and social contexts.”

Following up on these remarks, Obama drew attention to persistent US concern about China’s exchange-rate policy, inadequate protection of intellectual property, and impediments to market access.
“For an economy like the United States – where our biggest competitive advantage is our knowledge, our innovation, our patents, our copyrights – for us not to get the kind of protection we need in a large marketplace like China is not acceptable,” Obama observed

Related: America’s China-Centric Blame Game Is Absurd:

The TPP initiative should be viewed against this background, and not just in the context of the collapse of the Doha Round. The TPP’s nine sponsors have resolved “to establish a comprehensive, next-generation regional agreement that liberalizes trade and investment and addresses new and traditional trade issues and twenty-first-century challenges.”
These leaders also agreed to fast-track the TPP initiative, and to consider opening it to other members – most importantly Japan, a late convert to the idea of a Pacific region free-trade agreement.

The TPP’s agenda is divided into three categories: core, cross-cutting, and emerging issues. The core agenda is to stitch together a traditional free-trade agreement focused on industrial goods, agriculture, and textiles. The agreement would also have provisions for intellectual-property protection and what are dubbed the social and environmental issues. In short, the TPP’s core agenda will offer the region a “Doha Round-type” agreement that includes the social and environmental agenda that developing economies have been resisting within the WTO.

Going beyond the core, the cross-cutting issues include investor-friendly regulatory systems and policies that enable “innovative” or “employment-creating” small and medium-size enterprises to operate freely across borders within the TPP region.
Finally, the TPP seeks to bring into the ambit of a trade and investment agreement “new and emerging” issues. These include “trade and investment in innovative products and services, including digital technologies, and ensuring state-owned enterprises compete fairly with private companies and do not distort competition in ways that put US companies and workers at a disadvantage.”

In short, the US has moved to bring together all of the economies in the region that are worried about China’s beggar-thy-neighbor trade and exchange-rate policies. For the US, the eight other TPP countries, with a combined population of 200 million, constitute its fourth largest export market, behind only China, the European Union, and Japan. If Japan joins, the TPP’s importance would rise dramatically.
While the economics of the TPP is important, the strategic component is even more so. This is the second leg of America’s new “Pacific offensive,” aimed at offering nations in the region an alternative to excessive and rapidly growing dependence on a rising China.

The first leg of the offensive was the idea of the “Indo-Pacific” region, which Clinton developed a year ago and followed up this year with an essay called “America’s Pacific Century.” There, she defines the new region of US strategic engagement as “stretching from the Indian subcontinent to the western shores of the Americas.”

Related: Asia Pacific Economic Forecast

Extending east from the Indian Ocean and west via the Pacific, the US is creating a new strategic framework for the twenty-first century. The TPP is just one of the pillars of that new edifice.

By Sanjaya Baru
Copyright: Project-Syndicate, 2011
Sanjaya Baru is Director for Geo-Economics and Strategy, International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS),
and the author of The Strategic Consequences of India’s Economic Performance


Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and U.S. Interests - Overview

With an estimated population of 240.3 million, Indonesia is the world’s most populous Muslim nation and is the world’s fourth-most populated nation overall after China, India, and the United States. Its population is growing by approximately 3 million people a year.1 It has extensive natural resources.

A large percentage of world trade transits the strategically important straits of Malacca that link the Indian Ocean littoral to the South China Sea and the larger Pacific Ocean basin.straits of malacca
Indonesia is also perceived by many as the geopolitical center of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is a key actor in the geopolitical dynamics of the larger Asia-Pacific region.

Indonesia continues to emerge from a period of authoritarian rule and is consolidating its status as one of the world’s largest democracies. Some 86% of Indonesians are Muslim, and the overwhelming majority subscribe to a moderate form of the religion, giving Indonesia the potential to act as a counterbalance to more extreme expressions of Islam. Despite this, radical Islamists and terrorist cells have operated in the country.

Internal strife and social dislocation stemming from inter-communal discord, autonomous and secessionist movements, political machinations among elites, Islamist extremism, government corruption, and economic uncertainty have all undermined stability in Indonesia in the past. More recently, Indonesia has been conducting elections widely considered free and fair and building a more robust civil society. While Indonesia’s economy suffered major setbacks during the Asian financial crisis of 1997/98, it has weathered the recent global economic downturn relatively well. Issues for Congress

The key challenge for the United States and Indonesia is now how to build on recent progress in the relationship and deliver demonstrable results in developing the comprehensive partnership between the two countries that can further shared interests. Specific areas of Congressional interest include democracy promotion, security and ounterterrorism cooperation, human rights,

fostering liberal trade and investment policies, securing Indonesian cooperation on regional issues and global ones such as climate change.
The military-to-military relationship has been a key test of enhanced bilateral cooperation.
In 2005, the Administration of President George Bush moved to remove restrictions on International Military and Education and Training (IMET), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), and Foreign Military Sales (FMS) programs for Indonesia. This was viewed by many as a first step toward normalizing the military-to-military relationship. Indonesia has been a key player in the war against terror in Southeast Asia and an increasingly important geopolitical actor in the Asia- Pacific region.

Despite these developments, many continue to have concern over human rights abuses in Indonesia. Other members of Congress, however, have emphasized the progress Indonesia has made in several areas. An example of military cooperation with Indonesia is the Tri-border initiative that involves radar and maritime operations in the Makassar Strait to monitor possible terrorist or pirate activity.2 Other examples include U.S. assistance to Indonesia’s new defense
university and U.S. assistance with the procurement of C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, which, according to Defense Minister Juwono Sudarsono, will take advantage of U.S. discount pricing and foreign military financing.3

U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced in Jakarta in July 2010 that the United States would resume a “measured and gradual program of security cooperation” with Kopassus forces.4

During the Cold War, the United States was primarily concerned about communist influence in Indonesia.
fter the Cold War, congressional views on Indonesia were more influenced by ongoing concerns over alleged human rights abuses by the Indonesian National Defense Forces (TNI). The events of 9/11 added the concern of how best to pursue the war against terror in Southeast Asia. Some members of Congress remain dissatisfied with progress on bringing to justice Indonesian military personnel and police responsible for past human rights abuses in East
Timor and West Papua. The January 2006 arrest of Anthonius Wamang, who is thought to have led an attack near
the town of Timika in Papua that killed two Americans, did much to resolve what had been an obstacle to developing the relationship. As the United States moved from the post-Cold War world to the war against terror, human rights concerns have increasingly been balanced against American security interests, and particularly the need to develop effective counterterror cooperation with Indonesia to combat radical Islamic groups. Over the same period,
the human rights record of the TNI is generally perceived to have improved.

There is also increasing appreciation of Indonesia’s geopolitical position within Southeast Asia and the larger
East Asia region among American decision-makers.
Some analysts have argued that the need to obtain effective counterterror cooperation and to secure American strategic interests in the region necessitates a working relationship with Indonesia and its key institutions, such as the military. Other observers take the view that the promotion of American values, such as human rights and religious freedom, should be preeminent in guiding U.S. relations with Indonesia.

The Economic Dimension

The importance of trade and investment was highlighted at the two leaders’ joint press conference. Asia is a key source of economic growth which is vital to facilitate a sustained U.S. economic recovery.16 The sluggish U.S. economy places particular importance for President Obama on developing economic opportunities for U.S. exports.

Only 7.3% of Indonesian imports come from the United States while 14.5% come from China. China, with 9.9% of Indonesian exports as compared to the U.S. share of 9.3%, also outweighs the United States in importance as
a destination for Indonesian exports. The United States is Indonesia’s third largest trade and investment partner.17 China-Indonesia trade grew 44% last year and China reportedly is seeking to double its trade with Indonesia by 2014.18 Indonesia’s economy has performed solidly during the recent economic crisis with an expected 5.9% growth rate projected for 2010.

The Strategic Dimension
One of Obama’s key objectives for his Indonesia visit was to strengthen strategic ties with the world’s largest Muslim population which is also one of the fastest growing economies in Asia and the largest democracy in Southeast Asia. In one view, Indonesia represents the “biggest prize in a region caught uneasily between China’s rise and the United States renewed engagement”19

Some analysts believe the attention that President Obama has now given to Indonesia, as well as India, Japan, and Korea, may send a message to China and the region that America is focused on reengaging with the Asia-Pacific as a whole and with key democratic states in the region in particular.

Indonesia has a strong tradition of Non-Alignment and will not wish to be caught up in Sino-U.S. rivalry. During their joint press conference President Obama and President Yudhoyono respondedto the question should U.S. “renewed engagement be seen in any way as a counter balance to a rising China?” President Obama responded that “… we think China being prosperous and secure is a positive. And we’re not interested in containing that process.
We want China to continue to achieve its development goals.” President Yudhoyono responded “… it is Indonesia’s hope that China and the U.S. relations will continue to flow well because if something happens between those two states, it will have severe impacts to not only countries in the region, in Asia, but also to the world.”20

Regional Architectures
Developing ties with Indonesia is a key priority for the Obama Administration as it seeks to shape regional security and economic architectures for the Asia-Pacific. Many analysts view U.S.-Indonesia collaboration on developing new strategic and economic architectures that can facilitate the peaceful rise of China for the Asia-Pacific as a key goal of the new Comprehensive Partnership.21 According to President Obama, he and President Yudhoyono “spent a lot of time discussing” the “U.S. role in the configuration of the Asia-Pacific.”

The Obama vision is for the EAS to take the lead on political security issues. As Chair of ASEAN and host of the EAS next year, Indonesia will be in a key position to help shape the EAS’s role in this regard.22

Outreach to the Muslim World
President Obama’s visit to Indonesia, which included a visit to the Istiqlal Mosque and a speech at the University of Indonesia where he was enthusiastically welcomed,23 can also be viewed as part of his ongoing efforts to reach out to the Muslim world. It can also be viewed as an effort to build on his Cairo speech given in June 2009. Obama sent the message to Indonesia that the United States respects Islam despite the cultural difference between the two countries.24
Indonesia’s moderate Islamic character and size make it a strong setting for sending such a message though there are limits to which any message sent from a non-Arab nation can influence




Rights Concerns Shadow U.S. Alliance With Indonesia
August 30, 2011
The Associated Press



WASHINGTON – President Barack Obama has embraced Indonesia as a crucial U.S. ally in Southeast Asia, but rights groups and critics in Congress say the administration is too eager to trumpet Jakarta as a democratic success story.
Ahead of Obama's trip later this year to Indonesia, the second of his presidency, they want the U.S. to press Indonesia harder over its weak response to recent sectarian attacks by Islamic hard-liners and abuses by the military in remote West Papua. Those demands clash, however, with U.S. strategic interests in the moderate Muslim nation of 240 million people that has assumed growing importance for Washington as it deepens its engagement in the Asia-Pacific region. In November, Indonesia will host a summit of East Asian leaders, the first attended by a U.S. president.

"It seems now the administration's policy is to be nice to Indonesia for fear it would come under the umbrella of China. ... That's the sense of where we are headed," said Eni Faleomavaega, ranking Democrat on the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Asia-Pacific subcommittee.
The Samoan delegate is a longtime advocate for Papuan rights.

Indonesia, where Obama lived four years as a child, has come a long way since the 1998 overthrow of longtime dictator Suharto and the bloody military crackdown in East Timor in 1999 that led the U.S. to sever military ties for several years. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has consolidated a decade of democratic reform while other countries in the region, like Thailand, have suffered political instability.

Indonesia's international standing has climbed, as a counterterrorism partner and regional leader.
Under Indonesia's chairmanship this year, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations has mediated in a violent Thai-Cambodia border dispute and advanced efforts for a code of conduct in the volatile South China Sea.
Still, Yudhoyono has a patchy record on religious freedom, failing to prevent attacks on the minority Muslim Ahmadiyah sect that have worsened since a 2008 government decree that the sect's practitioners can face up to five years in prison. A victim of a recent mob attack received a stiffer sentence than some of his assailants.
Also, Indonesian troops have received only monthslong sentences for torture and murder in Papua, where the military retains a heavy presence because of a long-running separatist movement.
"If they were serious about accountability, these kinds of crimes would be severely punished," said Tim Rieser, senior policy adviser to Democratic Sen. Patrick Leahy. Legislation that Leahy sponsored bars the U.S. from providing training and other assistance to foreign military units that have committed human rights violations and not been brought to justice.

Rieser said evidence and witnesses have been ignored, charges reduced to the level of misdemeanors, and short sentences handed down that are an insult to the victims. In fact, few in the military have been punished for atrocities dating back to the early 1990s, he said.
Despite that, the United States last year lifted the remaining Defense Department restrictions on military ties, resuming cooperation with Indonesian army special forces after Jakarta committed to military reforms.

U.S. officials say the fact that there is a judicial process to try soldiers for the recent abuses is a sign of progress, and they emphasize the democratic advances Indonesia has made in the past decade.
"The steps we have seen from Indonesia are far beyond what anybody imagined a few years ago," said Robert Scher, deputy assistant defense secretary for South and Southeast Asia.
The U.S. was disappointed, however, by the sentences against soldiers tried for abuses in Papua, he said. "We will make clear to the government of Indonesia that how they deal with these soldiers will be a reflection of how they deal with these issues (of military reform)," Scher said.

"Tut-tutting only gets you so far in this world," responds Sophie Richardson, Asia advocacy director at Human Rights Watch. "Across most fronts in the bilateral relationship, Indonesia continues to get what they want regardless of how some actors have behaved."

Edmund McWilliams, former political counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta and now a rights activist, contends Kopassus special forces in Papua remain unaccountable and act against civilians in ways "unacceptable in any democratic society."
He pointed to the recent release of purported Indonesian military documents, publicized by Human Rights Watch. Dating from 2006 to 2009, they detail not just the ragtag Papuan insurgency, with its meager arsenal of 131 guns and four grenades, but military surveillance of peaceful activists, politicians and clergy, and the region's few foreign visitors. Another document from 2011 indicates the surveillance continues.

Indonesia presidential spokesman Teuku Faizasyah said the government cannot be blamed for past rights abuses and has taken firm action on its watch, dismissing from the military those involved in abuses in Papua. If sentences handed down appear lenient, it is not the government's fault, as the judiciary is independent, he said.
"We've changed," Faizasyah said. If there are cases of abuse, it's not based on policy or instruction from above."


RI, US exploring maritime cooperation
The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Tue, 12/14/2010 10:10 PM
A | A | A |

RI, US exploring maritime cooperation
Indonesia and the United States are exploring the possibility of enhancing their partnership in the maritime sector, a follow-up to the “comprehensive partnership” the two countries signed during US President Barack Obama’s visit to Jakarta early last month.

The Indonesian Maritime Institute (IMI) said in a press statement on Tuesday that Indonesian and US delegations had met Monday to discuss a number of potential cooperations in the maritime sector.
The meeting discussed, among others, cooperation opportunities in maritime education, the implementation of “ecological zones” on sailing routes, and the development of Indonesia as one of the most strategic maritime areas in the Asia-Pacific region.
IMI chief patron Connie Rahakundini Bakrie specifically asked the US to make Indonesia a more prominent partner in maritime trade, industry and defense, as quoted by Antara.


Insight: Strategic significance of Indonesia-US relations

Rizal Sukma, Jakarta | Wed, 11/10/2010 10:00 AM
A | A | A |

As President Barack Obama departed to India, everyone in Indonesia was certain that this time he would finally stop in Jakarta before continuing on to Seoul to attend the G20 Summit. Yet, when several international airlines suspended their services to Jakarta last Saturday out of fear of volcanic ash from angry Mount Merapi in Yogyakarta, speculations were abound that President Obama’s visit to Jakarta would be postponed again for a third time.

However, when Air Force One finally touched down in Jakarta on Tuesday, the long overdue visit finally took place. While some Indonesians might want to exploit the visit to demonstrate President Obama’s personal ties to the country, the substance of the visit is far more significant, not only for Indonesia but also for East Asian region and beyond.
In terms of bilateral relationships, the visit will mark a new chapter in Indonesia-US relations as the
two countries will officially commence the Comprehensive Partnership Agreement (CPA).

The comprehensive partnership denotes a relationship marked by an agreement to forge and institutionalize cooperation on a set of agreed issues, pursued according to a set of priorities, and carried out on a long-term basis.
It is not a relationship based on ad hoc arrangements. It is a relationship that covers common areas of concern across the board.

The significance of Indonesia-US relations needs to be placed also within the emerging new regional order in East Asia. Obama, aware of the growing importance of East Asia, has moved quickly to reaffirm the US’ role in the region. There is a need for Indonesia and the US to work closely in order to anticipate and manage the changing geo-political equation in East Asia due to the rise of China and the imminent arrival of India as major powers.

The rise of China and India has, in turn, started the process of the emergence of a new regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific. Therefore, of particular importance is the imperative for Indonesia and the US to work together in shaping a regional architecture that can accommodate everyone.
Despite the recent indications of China’s growing assertiveness in East Asia, there is no need to resort to a balance of power politics. The emergence of strategic competition and rivalry between China and the other three powers — the US, India and Japan — need to be prevented. Indonesia believes that a cooperative relationship pattern among the major powers is crucial for the stability and prosperity in the region. Indonesia is hopeful that the partnership with the US would contribute to regional efforts to ensure a stable and predictable regional order in Asia-Pacific.

Indonesia does not want to see the region dominated by any one major power or a group of powers.
Instead, it envisions an inclusive regional architecture where the East Asia Summit (EAS) — with full participation of the US and Russia —would serve as the primary vehicle for the attainment of an Asia-Pacific wide community. In that context, Indonesia expects the partnership with the US to contribute in the realization of such a vision.

East Asia is also important for the US in its efforts to search for regional partners in addressing global problems. The problems of climate change, energy security, transnational crimes and food security have all received greater attention in US foreign policy.

So does the promotion of democracy and human rights. In this context, a partnership with Indonesia would enhance the efforts to find both a regional and global solution to those problems. Indonesia, for example, has begun to insert the importance of democracy and human rights in the agenda of regional cooperation in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has also taken a positive role in addressing the problem of climate change and food security. Indeed, Indonesia and the US should and could work as natural partners in addressing these issues.

Challenges, however, are abundant. The most important one is how to manage high expectation on both sides. Despite the CPA, Indonesia and the US will continue to have differences on certain issues and policies. Indonesia-US relations are often affected by events and issues that have no direct connection with bilateral interest.
Specific events and disagreements over certain issues should not be allowed to derail the overall bilateral relationship.

The next four years, therefore, would be a critical period for the two countries to lay a strong foundation for a durable and sustainable partnership. Within that period, it is important for both Indonesia and the US to manage and iron out whatever differences they might have, and promote a greater understanding of each other. The opportunity to promote the partnership is too important to be missed.

The writer is the executive director of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta.



Commentary: Ask not what the US can do for us; ask what we can do for them
Endy M. Bayuni, Jakarta | Thu, 03/18/2010 9:09 AM

When US President Barack Obama comes to town next week, many people here are wondering how Indonesia will benefit and whether there is anything to gain, considering the trouble, including heavy security measures, that we have to go through in hosting him.

His visit has certainly raised expectations, some of them misplaced, with the thinking that since Obama spent four years of his childhood in Indonesia, he should come with a lot of goodies. At the other extreme, there are opinions that not only dismiss the potential benefits, but even oppose the visit in the first place.
Still, even with the scaled down program — Obama will not be accompanied by his wife and daughters as originally planned — there is everything to gain and almost nothing or little to lose from the visit, currently scheduled for March 23-24.

This is a historic opportunity for both countries to lay down the foundations of a more solid relationship. The Comprehensive Partnership Agreement that will be signed during Obama’s visit will certainly be important, but even more crucial is the fact that we have an American president who has emotional and even familial ties with Indonesia.
What other country in the world can brag that the president of the biggest superpower was educated at one of its schools? There probably will never be another chance like this, certainly not in the next century. Indonesia would be a fool to squander the golden opportunity in building better relations presented with Obama’s presidency and his visit next week.

The two countries, the third and fourth largest in terms of population, have far more in common than people on either side of the border care to admit. Both are struggling, with mixed results, to come to terms with the racial, ethnic and religious diversity of its population. We are going through the same experience, albeit regarding different levels of development.
Indonesia’s founding fathers knew better than most present day leaders about the similarities we have with the US. In drafting the constitution in 1945, they opted for the American presidential system instead of the European parliamentary system. The state motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, Sanskrit for “Unity in Diversity”, was too similar to the E Pluribus Unum, or Latin for “Out of Many, One” to be much of a coincidence.

The history of Indonesia’s post-independence, however, dictated that we went on different paths, from Indonesia’s efforts to stay neutral throughout the Cold War, to the blatant US intervention in Indonesia’s domestic affairs in the 1950s and 1960s.
Relations between the two countries have had their ups and downs since then and sadly but understandably often this past historical baggage continues to saddle sentiments in both countries, creating mutual suspicions that have prevented relations from blossoming to their full potential, even today.

Within the Indonesian elite, some still have hang-ups from the past. Notice the anti-American sentiments that easily soared after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US in 2001 and during the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Notice also how it is easy for politicians to score points by accusing officials such as Finance Minister Sri Mulyani Indrawati and Vice President Boediono as being “neolibs” representing American interests. To this last point, Indonesia may claim today that we have our own man at the White House, which beats the “neolibs” argument.
Joking aside, we can be sure that Obama is the only American president who will be more favorable
to Indonesia than others before and after him. Anyone who has lived abroad knows you cannot
help becoming fond of the country. Four years of his childhood here should be sufficient for Obama to feel as if Indonesia is his adopted country.

This is not to say that he will see eye to eye with Indonesia on every issue. These are misplaced expectations. But we certainly have his ears for sure, if not his heart.
Indonesia will continue to have its differences with the US under Obama on many issues, as reflected in the recent climate change debate, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Iranian nuclear issue and many others.
But this should not prevent the two countries from forging more cordial and warm relations. Since the reformasi in 1998, Indonesia and the US have become closer in values and principles of democracy, human rights and freedom that should make both countries feel comfortable in addressing issues and talking about their differences.

There are many more areas where the interests of the two countries converge, such as in trade and investment, in geopolitics, security and in counterterrorism, and in cultural exchange and the promotion of education. The point is that both countries stand to benefit tremendously from having closer relations.
When two friends, who are at ease with each other, meet, one should be asking the question, “How can I help?” To which the other will reply, “Thanks, but how can I be of help to you?”

Let us hope that when Barry (Obama’s nickname in Indonesia) and Bambang (President Yudhoyono’s middle name) meet next week, they will set a new tone for Indonesia—US relations.



Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa, right, and US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton
attend a joint press conference during a Joint Commission meeting between the two countries
at the Ayodhya Hotel in Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, Sunday. (AP/Saul Loeb, Pool)

Clinton: Indonesia can be democratic role model

Matthew Lee, Associated Press, Nusa Dua | Sun, 07/24/2011 7:00 PM

US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton is urging Indonesia to promote democracy in Myanmar and countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the throes of upheaval. She says its successful transition from dictatorship and status as a vibrant Muslim-majority democracy make it an ideal role model for both Myanmar and the Arab world.

In meetings with senior Indonesian officials on Sunday in Bali, Clinton said the country's recent history "provides an example for a transition to civilian rule and building strong democratic institutions." She said Indonesia has made significant strides toward democracy and shown that Islam and democracy can co-exist.

"In the year of the Arab Spring, there has never been a better moment for Indonesians to share what they learned from their own transition to democracy with the people of Egypt, Tunisia, and other nations that are now on that same difficult journey," Clinton said.

Indonesia, a nation of more than 237 million people, was ruled since the end of World War II by dictators Sukarno and Suharto. Suharto was ousted in a popular uprising in 1998. The world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia emerged from decades of authoritarian rule just over 10 years ago.
Its history could show the Asian nation of Myanmar the way toward democracy.
"Indonesia's own recent history provides an example for a transition to civilian rule and building strong democratic institutions," Clinton said during a news conference with Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa.

Myanmar's new civilian government, which took over late last year after a half-century of military rule, needs to make "concrete, measurable progress" in bringing about democratic reforms if it wants to win the confidence of the international community, Clinton said earlier in the week.
That includes releasing more than 2,000 political prisoners and holding meaningful dialogue with its political opponents.



WikiLeaks Document Release

February 2, 2009
Congressional Research Service
Report 98-677

Larry A. Niksch, Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division
Updated August 10, 1998

Abstract. This report describes the history and the issues involved in the longstanding differences between
Congress and the executive branch over U.S. policy toward the Indonesian military (ABRI). It describes
two past episodes when these differences broke out: the period of Indonesian radicalism under President
Sukarno in the early 1960s and the initial years of the Indonesian military occupation of East Timor in the
late 1970s. It outlines the different views of the Indonesian military between its congressional critics and
the executive branch officials who have promoted close U.S. relations with it. The issues between Congress
and the Bush and Clinton Administration in the 1990s are discussed within this framework, culminating
in American policy toward the ABRI in 1998 as Indonesia’s economic-political crisis led to the downfall of
President Suharto. Specific issues of the 1990s discussed in the report, including U.S. training of Indonesian
military personnel and U.S. arms sales to Indonesia, likely will come to new legislative attention in the near future.



US Relations 1950s - 1967
clouded by continuous attempts at subversion

The US relations were clouded by continous US attempts at subversion in an attempt to dethrone President Sukarno.
The attempts were finally successful in 1967 in the aftermath of the Gestapu.
After President Suharto took office US-Indonesia relations improved tremendously and US investment grew as never before.
Almost overnight the Indonesian government went from being a fierce voice for cold war neutrality and anti-imperialism to a quiet, compliant partner of the U.S. world order. The US Seventh Fleet gained unrestricted access to the strategic waterways in and around the Indonesian archipelago. Project aid, military aid flowed into the country.
This was mostly tied aid related to donor country interest, i.e. aid that benefited both Indonesia and the donor country.













1950's - 1967

From Eisenhower to LB Johnson






Jakarta, 28 October 1966

Ambassador-at-Large Governor Averell Harriman meets with Suharto at his home
accompanied by US Ambassador Marshall Green



How the Cold War influenced U.S.-Indonesia relations
The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Sun, 09/02/2007 2:06 PM
Muhammad Farid, Contributor, Jakarta

Better dead than red.
The slogan symbolized U.S. fears of communist expansion and gained currency during the 1940s to 60s.
After World War II, the world entered the Cold War between the ""Communist Bloc"" (led by the Soviet Union) and the
""Free World"" (led by the U.S.). The mutual antagonism that ensued became a hallmark of U.S. foreign policy, including toward Indonesia.

Indonesian historian Baskara T. Wardaya SJ explores U.S.-Indonesia relations in the Cold War era through his book
Cold War Shadow: United States Policy Toward Indonesia, 1953-1963.
With an emphasis on the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations, he shows that Indonesian history during the
Cold War was greatly influenced by relations with the U.S.
He explains they were shaped by three factors. First was U.S. economic and political interests.

American oil companies had operated in the archipelago since 1920. In 1939, American explorers discovered the largest oil field in Southeast Asia near Minas, in central Sumatra.
By the eve of World War II, the Netherlands colony provided the U.S. with 33 percent of its rubber, 80 percent of its palm oil and 90 percent of its quinine.
After Indonesia's Independence was proclaimed Aug. 17, 1945, the Truman administration attempted to bring Indonesia
under Western control. As the fifth-largest country in the world with abundant natural resources and a strategic location, Indonesia became a power in Asia with great potential.

If Indonesia fell into the hands of the communists it would surely jeopardize U.S. interests in the continent.
As a U.S. ally, the Dutch were supported by Washington to restore their prewar colonial government.
But U.S. policy led to communist influence growing rapidly in Indonesia. It culminated in a rebellion by the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in Madiun on Sept. 18, 1948.
After the rebellion was suppressed, the U.S. realized that Indonesian leaders including Sukarno were not pro-communist.
It led the U.S. to change its policy to one of support for Indonesian independence.

Perceived communist threat
The second factor was a variety of internal struggles within U.S. administrations, which were heavily reliant on policymakers. The second Eisenhower administration (1957-1961) is a concrete example.
To shape policy toward Indonesia, Eisenhower relied on vice president Richard M. Nixon, secretary of state John F. Dulles, assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern affairs Walter S. Robertson and CIA director Allen W. Dulles.
They warned that Indonesia might gradually be taken over by communists. Having been suppressed in 1948, the PKI had grown as a major political power that secured fourth place in the 1955 election.

In 1957, Sukarno replaced the Western-style parliamentary system with what was termed ""guided democracy"". He continued with the formation of the Gotong Royong (mutual assistance) Cabinet, which aimed to accommodate all major political parties and other groupings, including the PKI.
U.S. policymakers then advised Eisenhower to take measures on Indonesia.
In contrast, U.S. ambassador to Indonesia John M. Allison urged Washington to understand why communism had grown rapidly in Indonesia. He pointed out that the U.S. favored the Dutch during the Indonesian independence struggle, in contrast with Soviet support for Indonesia. To oppress Indonesia would only hasten the country's move toward a communist embrace.
But Eisenhower ignored Allison and relied solely on the policymakers. Allison was then removed from Indonesia less than a year after being appointed ambassador. Without informing the U.S. Embassy to Indonesia, the CIA launched operations to support anticommunist army dissidents in Sumatra and Sulawesi against Sukarno.

Political maneuvering
The third factor was president Sukarno's political charisma. Within the Cold War context, Sukarno positioned Indonesia as a non-aligned country, but at the same time played on antagonistic U.S.-Soviet relations to promote Indonesia's interests.
Within the national political constellation, Sukarno played a role as a balancing power between the PKI and Army. He needed the PKI to provide him with a channel to the populace.
He also needed to maintain good relations with the Army to prevent the PKI threatening his position. Meanwhile, the PKI moved closer to Sukarno in order to secure its position from an anticommunist Army leadership.
On the other hand, the anticommunist Army realized that the close proximity between Sukarno and the PKI could limit the Army's political effectiveness.

The role Sukarno played with both the foreign and national political constellations effectively compelled the U.S. to side with Indonesia in the independence struggle and West Irian (currently Papua) issue.
During the independence struggle, the Dutch depicted Sukarno as a pro-communist leader who would soon turn Indonesia to communism. On the contrary, Sukarno attacked the PKI rebellion in Madiun in 1948 and, in turn, convinced Washington to support Indonesia.

Past a key to the future
After the transfer of sovereignty in 1949, Sukarno had an unfinished task: to return West Irian from the Dutch to Indonesia. However, Truman's successor Eisenhower remained neutral on the dispute.
Disappointed with the U.S., Sukarno convinced the Soviet Union to support the claim over Irian and to provide substantial economic support.

At the eve of the Kennedy administration in 1961, the total amount of Soviet aid to Indonesia since 1956 had reached US$1 billion. In contrast, U.S. aid to Indonesia since 1950 was only $327 million.
Meanwhile, Sukarno's success unified both the PKI and Army on the common cause of Irian. Kennedy quickly realized that Moscow could take advantage of the issue.
It led the U.S. to support Indonesia in the dispute. After Irian's handover, Kennedy also approved a $17 million loan to Indonesia, beside spare parts and raw materials aid.
Having good relations with Sukarno, Kennedy attempted in 1963 to neutralize Sukarno's antagonism with the
British-Malayan plan to establish a Federation of Malaysia.

Sukarno believed the plan was merely a colonial plot to encircle Indonesia. But Kennedy was unable to take any further action to solve the dispute. He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963.
Sukarno was overthrown two years later after the putsch of Sept. 30, 1965.
It is obvious that Indonesian domestic and foreign policy during 1953-1963 tied in with U.S. policy toward Indonesia.
Baskara emphasizes in his book: "" ... it is almost impossible to understand the history of U.S.-Indonesia relations since the Second World War without seeing them within the context of the Cold War.""

To write this book, Baskara conducted research in Indonesia and U.S.
It took him to explore primary documents, especially those in presidential libraries.
The documents, as stated in the book, reveal many hitherto largely unknown events, such as a CIA plan to assassinate Sukarno at the Bandung Conference in 1955.
Finally, this book is important to an understanding of Indonesia-U.S. relations in both the present and future.
Although the Cold War ended with the fall of the communist bloc in 1990, the patterns still continue and shape relations between the two countries.

The reviewer is an alumnus of the literature school at University of Indonesia.



Indonesia-US Relations in the context of President Obama’s visit

November 10, 2010

Indonesia is the second stopover after India in President Barack Obama’s four-nation tour of Asia that also includes South Korea and Japan. The much deferred visit to the leading ASEAN member state with the largest Muslim population in the world is important beyond mere symbolism. It represents the United States’ attempt to redefine its role in Asia at a time when its strategic and economic clout was beginning to be questioned.

From the world’s largest democracy to the third largest, President Obama (representing the second largest democracy) arrived on November 9 in a country which was dominated by authoritarian Suharto until his resignation in May 1998. Indonesia had opted for ‘democracy first’ as a desirable domestic paradigm in preference to ‘security first’. Obama’s Indonesia visit occurs two days after neighbouring Myanmar held its elections and had yet to make a clear transition. Despite fears that Obama’s visit may be cancelled yet again due to volcanic eruptions from Mount Erapi, Air Force One landed in Jakarta. Twice earlier (in March and June) he was forced to cancel plans to visit Indonesia. President Obama is expected to visit the Istiqlal Grand Mosque, the Kalibat Heroes Cemetery and to deliver a lecture at the University of Indonesia besides holding bilateral talks with President Yudhoyono.

In 2008 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono had visited the US immediately after the election of Obama as President and emphasised on the need for Indonesia-US strategic partnership. President Yudhoyono (who received military training and a Masters degree from the US) got re-elected to office in 2009. Indonesia was the second country that the US Secretary of State chose to visit in February 2009 immediately after assuming office under the Obama Administration. A “Comprehensive Partnership Agreement” (CPA) is expected to put the seal on political/security, economic and development, and social-cultural cooperation which are already underway through a host of agreements that have been signed by officials of the two countries since Obama took office. The US President’s personal links with Indonesia will help tide over the rough edges in the relationship.

The US cannot ignore Indonesia’s credentials as the largest Southeast Asian nation which is a vibrant democracy, a bastion of moderate Islam, committed to multilateralism (ASEAN headquarters is based in Jakarta), counter terrorism and maritime security. As China reasserted itself in the South China Sea (claimed by Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia), the Indonesian Foreign Minister rejected China’s efforts to keep the US out of the dispute. The ASEAN Summit followed (held for the first time in New York), which Indonesian President Yudhoyono could not attend. So far a South China Sea Code of Conduct acceptable to China has not yet been evolved . Equally, Indonesia is cognizant of the fact that China must not get the impression that ASEAN is ganging up with the US against China. Interestingly, Indonesia has already formally taken over the chairmanship for 2011 of the ASEAN from Vietnam at the close of the 17th ASEAN Summit at Hanoi.

The US Department of Defence and the Indonesian Ministry of Defence signed a Framework Arrangement on Cooperative Activities in the Field of Defence on June 9 to cover the areas of security dialogue, training, the defence industry, procurement, maritime security, etc. Military ties between the two countries are expected to improve as the Indonesian MoD addresses human rights issues, which have bedevilled the relationship in the past, especially at the time of the East Timor crisis. In July the US lifted the ban on Kopassus Special Forces.
While the US copes with terrorism, Indonesia has been a victim of terrorism itself as the October 2002 Bali bombings and the July 2009 terrorist attacks amply illustrate. In the absence of the draconian laws under the Suharto regime, the US still expects sterner action from Jakarta against the Jemaah Islamiyah terrorists. Washington is already funding some anti-terror activities of Indonesia’s counterterrorism unit, particularly since the Bali bombings of 2002.

While Indonesia cannot afford to annoy the Major Powers, it is sensitive about its image as a large nation of Southeast Asia and does not favour abdicating that role. Regional cooperation in joint patrolling of the seas (including the Malacca Straits Coordinated Patrol) in conjunction with US intelligence sharing has brought down piracy incidents.
The US on its part provided timely aid during the tsunami. It also plans to remain engaged in conflict prevention and resolution in Aceh. (In contrast, Myanmar had totally refused US aid at the time of Cyclone Nargis). Further, it is engaged in cooperation in the area of non-traditional security threats.

The Indonesian economy has experienced enough turbulence and it is in the US’ larger interest to project Indonesia as a centre of stability. US Secretary of Commerce had led the first cabinet level trade mission to Indonesia in May 2010 to promote US clean energy technologies in Indonesia. The US Administration has earmarked $165 million over five years for student exchange programmes. Another $136 million over three years has been earmarked for climate change projects.

Differences exist in Indonesia-US relations, as typified by the imposition in October of duties on coated paper from Indonesia, and earlier on the IMF package. The US has differences with Indonesia over the latter’s alleged non-compliance with “internationally recognized labour standards”. The US which is aware of Indonesia’s potential as a burgeoning market, investment destination and as a source of raw material is troubled by infrastructure and corruption bottlenecks.

Before President Obama moves to the two East Asian countries on his itinerary (South Korea and Japan) he would like to be assured that he along with President Yudhoyono have set US- Indonesia relations on a more mature path. Just as President Yudhoyono must anticipate the trajectory of India-Indonesia relations when he arrives as India’s guest at the Republic Day early next year.


Table1: USA: Exports to /Imports from Indonesia
In US$ million























































































Under Suharto in the years 1967-1998 Indonesesia came in the firm grip of powerful western countries and corporations, the IGGI, World Bank and IMF and became heavily saddled with debts and rampant with corruption.
IGGI donor countries provided mostly tied project aid, obligating Indonesia to spend the "aid" in the donor country , benefiting the donor country's economy and industry.
To protect their interests and ensure that Indonesia remained a staunch ally, the West and their financial institutions closed their eyes to the heavily blown-up prices and rampant high-level corruption.
Suharto, a proclaimed staunch Western Ally, left behind a heritage of corruption that will be hard to erase.


 The Politics of Power
Freeport in Suharto's Indonesia.

By Denise Leigh

This book examines how and why an American company, despite rigorous home-state laws, was able to operate in West Papua with impunity for nearly thirty years and adapt to, indeed thrive in, a business culture anchored in corruption, collusion and nepotism.
The Politics of Power is unprecedented in its investigation of the wider political context of the relationship between Jakarta and foreign capital, which to this day keeps the lucrative mining industry in Indonesia afloat.


For those who wish to understand the scale of the West's complicity in the disaster that was Suharto'ds "New order" (1966-1998) and its legacy for the Indonesian people, this book is required reading

(Peter Carey, Trinity College, Oxford).

Corruption has been recognized as endemic in Asia, with Indonesia under Suharto having the dubious distinction of being perceived as the most corrupt nation in Asia for a number of years.56 In fact, the Indonesian brand of clientelist/feudalist corruption-corruption, collusion, and nepotism (commonly referred to as xxisr [korupsi, kolusi dan nepotismd-was well recognized and had long been accepted as part of the Indonesian business culture. During a seminar on corruption in March 1998, the former head of the government's Financial Comptroller Agency advised that corruption, which permeated all levels of society, was worst in the highest echelons of government; he blamed the continuation of the practice on a weak and highly secretive supervisory system.
In Indonesia corruption can be categorized into two kinds: "need" based and "greed" based, or as Adam Schwarz says, "big" and "small" corruption."' While Jakarta accepted, and even encouraged, corruption at all levels of society, for the majority of Indonesians who existed on or below the poverty line, it became an essential way of life.58 In a country devoid of welfare, where tens of millions of people barely eke out an existence, corruption had become the only safety net. Low-level government officials practiced need-based small corruption simply in order to survive. Small corruption existed in Indonesia because it became a necessity.
When discussing the big or greed-based corruption, we should note that the West's transnationals and lending institutions, with their laws against the practice in their home states, became some of the system's beneficiaries. That is, corrupt Indonesian business practices continued not only because of the absence of internal accountability procedures for both business and bureaucracy in Indonesia, but also because of the West's indifference. After the fall of Suharto, the World Bank acknowl
edged that it knew that 30 percent or more of all development funds channeled directly through the government was being siphoned off.
According to a project manager for the World Bank's Jakarta office, many within the organization were able to conveniently rationalize this corruption as "a kind of tax on an otherwise sound economy."

Business in Indonesia (p16-17)

INDONESIAN BUSINESS UNDER Suharto had no concept of conflict of interest. To the contrary, politicians, the military, and the bureaucracy became essential elements of the business community. With the extended Suharto family and the president's friends as powerful role models, what was described as the traditional Javanese distaste for business was essentially abandoned in the late seventies in the rush for fortunes.' Indeed, Suharto, who used access to resources and business as the major lubricant of his patronage style of leadership, actively encouraged the involvement of all powerful groups in this sector of the economy. By controlling the patronage system through access to business, Suharto effectively controlled the military, the politicians, and the public servants. Under Suharto these groups were intimately involved in the most lucrative business ventures to the point that to be successful in Indonesian business one usually needed an influential partner in at least one of these institutional groups, preferably with direct access to Suharto. By controlling these groups, he controlled the state and the forces of coercion.



Indonesia-US relations were heavily impacted by the Cold War struggle between the US and Soviet Union. The US wanted Indonesia as an ally and resented Sukarno's independent attitude. Starting with aggressive operations by the CIA during the Eisenhower years, followed by JFK's diplomatic strategies, unabated US efforts continued to win over Indonesia , attempting Sukarno's downfall in one way or another, and put in place a successor more willing to side with them.

Concerned about Sukarno's political direction and the powerful Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), President Eisenhower ordered the CIA to foment a coup in 1958.

The 1958 coup failed, but its planning linked the CIA and Pentagon with Suharto and other Indonesian military officers who saw an opening to power. 

They finally succeeded in the years 1965-1967.
Marshall Green, was US Ambassador in Indonesia July 26, 1965 - March 25, 1969

After President Suharto took office US-Indonesia relations improved tremendously and US investment grew as never before.
Almost overnight the Indonesian government went from being a fierce voice for cold war neutrality and anti-imperialism to a quiet, compliant partner of the U.S. world order.


The US secretly supported Indonesia in East Timor whilst blaming Inonesia through the media

History cannot be rewritten but is an excellent Learning tool

We are now in a new phase of US Relations.

President Obama announced a New Beginning in relations with the Islamic Word

Indonesia is somewhere on the priority list of President Obama although he has twice cancelled an announced visit to Indonesia.

After President SBY announced his inability to attend the Obama sponsored ASEAN summit in New York September 2010, Obama announced that he will visit Indonesia in November 2010 and will attend the next ASEAN summit in Jakarta 2011.

Minister of State Hillary Clinton visited Indonesia February 2009



NOVEMBER 9, 2010

The President's Indonesia Opportunity
It isn't enough to declare that we aren't at war with Islam, as true as that is.


President Obama arrives today in Indonesia, a country he knows well, where he lived for part of his childhood and is extremely popular. Indonesia is on the other side of the world, 12,000 miles from Washington, and most Americans know little about it. So they may not appreciate the importance of the president's visit as an opportunity to cement a closer relationship with an ally in the fight against Islamist extremism.

The world's fourth most populous country, Indonesia is a major emerging economy and potential trading partner. It also exemplifies a successful transition from dictatorship to democracy, and it has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world.
Indonesia is one of the very few Muslim-majority countries where Islam is not the state religion. Reflecting its tradition of religious tolerance, the country officially recognizes six religions, of which Islam is only one. Indonesia's national motto—"Unity in Diversity," so similar to our own—reflects the common values that our two countries share.

We also share a common enemy: Islamist extremism. In combating such extremism, Muslims themselves are our most important allies. The extremists recognize this, which is why they particularly target Muslims. They have targeted Indonesia with preaching and with violence—but so far with limited success.
Al Qaeda attacks on Indonesia, starting with the 2002 bombing in Bali that killed over 200 people, most of them foreign tourists, have proved self-defeating. They have stimulated highly effective counterterrorism efforts by the Indonesian police and have turned ordinary citizens strongly against the terrorists. When several terrorists were killed after attacking foreigners in two Jakarta hotels last year, some Muslim villages refused to accept their bodies for burial. Attempts to exploit Islam in democratic politics have also been largely unsuccessful, at least so far.

Not all is well, however. Supremacist Wahhabi doctrine, imported from the Middle East, has made inroads. A group called the Islamic Defenders Front has attacked some Christian churches and mosques of a minority sect. And some local officials have banned the building of churches.
But there is opposition to this intolerance. Two months ago, thousands of protestors demonstrated against anti-Christian violence. Among them was Inayah Wahid, a daughter of the late Indonesian president and Muslim spiritual leader Abdurrahman Wahid. "We are all one nation and we struggle for the unity of the nation," she said. Indonesian authorities are now considering legal and other reforms to protect churches and remove obstacles to their construction.

President Obama can use his prestige in Indonesia to express strong, unapologetic support for religious freedom. There is no comparison, for example, between an insignificant American preacher who talks about burning the Koran and an Indonesian cabinet minister who calls for banning a minority Muslim sect. But he also needn't be openly critical. By expressing support for Indonesia's traditions of openness, tolerance and the rights of women, he can embolden Indonesians who fight for those values.
He can also clear up some of the confusion about American military actions in Muslim countries. It isn't enough to declare that we aren't at war with Islam, as true as that is.

The president could point out that we are fighting in Afghanistan not only to protect ourselves but also to protect the mostly Muslim population from the tyranny of the Taliban. An opponent of the war in Iraq, Mr. Obama can credibly point out that, whatever that war's wisdom, it is al Qaeda that has been deliberately killing innocent Muslims, and the Iraqi army and police that have been U.S. allies. This follows on earlier U.S. military action to protect Muslims in Kuwait, Northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Kosovo—and in Aceh, Indonesia, where prompt U.S. action saved thousands after the tsunami six years ago. Many Indonesians—like so many others—are unaware of these facts.

During his visit, President Obama and his Indonesian counterpart, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, will launch a "Comprehensive Partnership Initiative" to deepen bilateral relations, especially economic and educational cooperation. But the most immediate result of the visit will be what impression Mr. Obama leaves with Indonesians about his convictions and Indonesia's traditions concerning religious tolerance.

Mr. Wolfowitz, a former U.S. ambassador to Indonesia and deputy secretary of defense, is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.




CRS Report for Congress

Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics and American interests
Updated June 20, 2007
Analyst in Southeast and South Asian Affairs, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division

Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress

Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and American Interests

Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim nation. It is also a moderate Muslim state which is strategically positioned astride key sea lanes which link East Asia with the energy resources of the Middle
East. Indonesia is also seen by many as a valuable partner in the war against radical Islamist militants in Southeast Asia. Jakarta is continuing to democratize and develop its civil society and rule of law under the leadership of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, who many view as effective and reform minded. However, a legacy of abuse of human rights by the military which stems from the era of former President Suharto remains unresolved.

United States foreign policy concerns have focused on building relations with Indonesia to more effectively counter the rise of militant Islamist extremists as well as develop relations with a geopolitically important state through which strategic sea
lanes link the Middle East and Northeast Asia. The United States has also sought to promote democracy, the rule of law, and human rights in Indonesia in addition to promoting American trade and investment interests there. There have been several cases of avian flu in humans reported in Indonesia, and there have been concerns that Indonesia does not have the resources sufficient to contain a large scale outbreak should one occur.

This report surveys key aspects of Indonesia’s domestic politics and strategic dynamics in addition to providing general background information on Indonesia. It also provides an overview of the bilateral relationship between the United States and
Indonesia. The report examines issues of ongoing congressional interest, including Indonesia’s role in the war against violent Islamist extremists, international military education and training (IMET), human rights, religious freedom, promotion of
democracy and good governance, trade, foreign assistance, and regional geopolitical and strategic interests. The report seeks to provide a broader context for understanding the complex interrelated nature of many of these issues, several of
which are explored in greater detail in other CRS reports.

The Role of the Military (CRS-8)

The Indonesian National Defense Force (TNI) is generally regarded as the strongest institution in Indonesia.
Its origins date to the struggle for independence.
The TNI traditionally has been internally focused, playing a key role in Indonesian politics and preserving the territorial integrity of the nation — largely from internal threats — rather than focusing on external security concerns. Its strong tradition of secular nationalism has acted to help integrate the nation.

Government expenditures on the military in 2003 totaled only 1.3% of GDP.29 The key elements of the military in Indonesia are the Army Strategic Reserve Command, the Army Special Forces Command, other special forces, and the Military Regional Commands. There are also Air Force and Naval commands. While the military now has a less formal role in the
politics of the nation than it had in the Suharto era, it remains a key actor behind the scenes.30 That said, some observers are concerned about its indirect influence over politics. The Indonesian military has attracted negative attention through reports of involvement with human rights abuses in East Timor, Aceh, Papua, and Maluku, although current problems seem associated mostly with Papua.

Efforts to reform the military that were begun in the post-Suharto reformasi period now appear to be moving forward once again. Indonesian Defense Minister Juwono Sudarsono is reported to have estimated that the defense budget must be
doubled to achieve a professional military and modernized armed force that does not have to look to businesses and other ventures for alternative sources of income.31

The government is currently reviewing military-run businesses. Those deemed inefficient are being turned over to the government.32

President Yudhoyono has nominated Air Force Head Air Marshal Djoko Suyanto to lead the Armed Forces of Indonesia.
The Air Force is the least powerful branch of the Indonesian Armed Forces.
This position traditionally has been held by an Indonesian Army general.
During his “fit and proper” hearing before the House Commission I on Security and Defense, Suyanto vowed to keep the military out of politics and move forward with internal reform but stated that he did not see a need to dismantle the territorial command structure, a move viewed by many as seeking to gain favor with the relatively powerful army.33
During the period of reform, the TNI officially abandoned the doctrine of dwifungsi, or dual function, which gave it an official role in the politics of the nation.34 Appointed members to the legislative bodies from the military were removed while the police were separated from the TNI. Efforts were also begun to more firmly establish civilian control of the armed forces. Supporters of the reform agenda in Indonesia would like to see additional measures taken, including reform of the army’s territorial structure, a full withdrawal of the military from independent business activities, improving the military’s sensitivity
to human rights, and eliminating links to extremist elements.35

Some analysts of the TNI see it as having regained much of the power that it lost with the fall of Suharto. In this view, what has changed is that this power is less formalized. The TNI budget is estimated by some to be 50% self-generated. This part
of the TNI budget is thought to be largely outside governmental control. The TNI has emerged from the reformasi period with its territorial command structure intact, even as it lost its military representatives in parliament.36 The TNI will likely continue to play a central role in the evolution of the Indonesian polity in the years ahead. It could continue to play a largely constructive role supporting democratic change, or at least not obstructing it, or it could act to slow change. It also will continue to play a key role in attempting to suppress autonomous and secessionist movements in Indonesia and it will likely seek to preserve its prominent place in Indonesian society.37command structure, a move viewed by many as seeking to gain favor with the relatively powerful army.33

During the period of reform, the TNI officially abandoned the doctrine of dwifungsi, or dual function, which gave it an official role in the politics of the nation.34 Appointed members to the legislative bodies from the military were removed while the police were separated from the TNI. Efforts were also begun to more firmly establish civilian control of the armed forces. Supporters of the reform agenda in Indonesia would like to see additional measures taken, including reform of the army’s territorial structure, a full withdrawal of the military from independent business activities, improving the military’s sensitivity to human rights, and eliminating links to extremist elements.35

Some analysts of the TNI see it as having regained much of the power that it lost with the fall of Suharto. In this view, what has changed is that this power is less formalized. The TNI budget is estimated by some to be 50% self-generated. This part
of the TNI budget is thought to be largely outside governmental control. The TNI has emerged from the reformasi period with its territorial command structure intact, even as it lost its military representatives in parliament.36 The TNI will likely continue to play a central role in the evolution of the Indonesian polity in the years ahead. It could continue to play a largely constructive role supporting democratic change, or at least not obstructing it, or it could act to slow change. It also will continue to play a key role in attempting to suppress autonomous and secessionist movements in Indonesia and it will likely seek to preserve its prominent place in Indonesian society.37


Foreign Policy (CRS-18)

President Sukarno

President Suharto

Indonesian foreign policy has been shaped largely by two men, Presidents Sukarno and Suharto. Once a leading force in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) of the early Cold War era, Indonesia has traditionally sought to remain largely independent from great power conflict and entangling alliances. Sukarno’s world view divided the world into new emerging forces and old established forces. Sukarno sought to fight the forces of neo-colonialism, colonialism, and imperialism, which brought his government closer to China in 1964-65. Suharto’s New Order lessened Sukarno’s anti-western rhetoric and focused on better relations with the region.

Under Suharto, Indonesia was one of the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian States (ASEAN) in 1967 and played a key leadership role in the organization. Indonesia’s internal problems since 1998 have kept it largely internally
focused. As a result, it has not played as active a role in the organization as in past years. Indonesia exerts a moderate voice in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) grouping.

Under President Megawati
the emphasis
of Indonesian foreign policy
shifted to focus on trade.

Indonesia’s strategic interests are largely regional. Indonesia signed the Timor Gap Treaty with Australia in 1991. This provided for a mutual sharing of resources located in the seabed between Australia and the then-Indonesian province of East Timor.
This lapsed with the independence of East Timor. Australia and Indonesia also signed a security agreement in 1995 which fell short of an alliance but called for mutual consultations on security matters. Indonesian displeasure with Australia’s
support of East Timor independence in 1999 led Indonesia to renounce the agreement.

Indonesian ties with the West have at times been strained over alleged human rights abuses by the TNI. In 1990 Indonesia and China normalized ties, which had been strained since the alleged abortive coup by the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in1965. Sino-Indonesian tensions remain over disputes related to the South China sea, particularly near the Natuna Islands at the southern end of the South China Sea, though in recent years ties have warmed.

In recent years, Indonesia has apparently embarked on a major foreign policy initiative with China which marks a significant departure from past tensions in their bilateral relationship. In April 2005, President Yudhoyono and Chinese President Hu
Jintao signed a series of trade, investment and maritime deals which have been described as a ‘strategic partnership.’75 President Yudhoyono has speculated that trade between Indonesia and China could triple to $20 billion in three years.76
The developing relationship will also reportedly include arms sales and assistance.

Indonesian Defense Minister Juwono Sudarsono has reportedly signed a memorandum of understanding on defense technology which includes arms sales and bilateral military cooperation.77

It is also reported that China will work with Indonesia to develop short range missiles.78

In April and May of 2005, tensions between Indonesia and Malaysia mounted over a maritime territorial dispute in the Ambalat area of the Sulawezi Sea. Both Indonesia and Malaysia reportedly have awarded offshore exploration contracts in the Ambalat area.79 Indonesian Kostrad units were placed on full alert as a result of the tensions.80 Indonesia and Malaysia agreed to resolve the dispute peacefully after a Malaysian patrol boat and a Indonesian Navy ship collided in the disputed area.81






 Indonesia Digest

 Global Digest